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To ensure this legal requirement is met all of the following options to identify the presence of asbestos may be adopted. Non-destructive asbestos audits involve inspecting all visible and accessible areas within a property and identifying materials suspected of containing asbestos using the consultants experience to make the determination.

The asbestos audit encompasses items within and adjacent the property such as; construction materials and building services. Non fixed equipment found within a property are not included in the asbestos audit. With destructive asbestos audits the asbestos consultant is required to take physical samples of the structure often using a hammer and chisel.

Destructive asbestos audits should only be conducted after the occupants have vacated the building and electricity has been turned off to the property.

A destructive asbestos survey is commissioned to identify all ACM in the property and is done usually prior to the commencement of refurbishment and or demolition works. If the condition of the ACM changes at any point in time a re-inspection is required regardless of the 5 year time frame.

Inspections are to be conducted by an asbestos hygienist and will comprise a visual assessment of the condition of the in-situ ACM to determine whether the material remains in a satisfactory condition, or if deterioration has occurred since the previous inspection. If deterioration of the in situ ACM material is found to have occurred since the last inspection remedial action, such as encapsulation, isolation or removal of the asbestos containing materials, is required.

Upon completion of the re inspection the asbestos hygienist will be required to update and re-issue the asbestos register. The end result of the site asbestos audit is the compilation of a site asbestos register. For each asbestos occurrence location, photos along with a risk-based assessment of the location including condition of the materials are included in the asbestos register. This will ensure that employees, site visitors and contractors working on site know where they are likely to encounter asbestos containing materials and therefore reduce the risk of an unexpected contamination event.

The effective control and management of any asbestos containing materials remaining in-situ is dependent on the need to ensure the asbestos remains undisturbed and in good condition. As such, the purpose of an Asbestos Management Plan AMP is to ensure that all practicable steps are taken to prevent or minimise the risk of exposure to asbestos containing materials, for all staff, public and contractors present at the Property. These interpretations are svhat people aaually describe when they refer to the "AHERA protocol" for assessment of asbestos-containing materials.

I ,S I- in imitiiieiil. Every homogeneous area will be subject to a combination of these factors. The inspector determines the relative importance of each and arrives at a composite rank- ing for potential for disturbance as Low, Medium or High. The contributions of physical and environmental distur- bance, and their components, should be explained in the survey report. In some cases, physical activity may be the most important factor, while water damage may be more sig- nificant in other situations.

Physical Disturbance One lesson from awareness training is that most damage to ACM is the result of human carelessness, ignorance and indifference. When considering the physical disturbance factors in ranking the Potential for Disturbance, remember that these involve people. Find out of the work practices that resulted in the existing damage still prevail and could make the damage even worse.

We would like to think he sprayed the fireproofing on the beam and deck in Fig. Environmental Disturbance Four causes of environmental disturbance are identified in Table 2. This can result in a slow release of dust, as in the attic shown in Fig. Erosion is caused by airborne dust, and the pictures of dark areas on the ceiling next to an HVAC grill Fig. Fix the roof. In one alumina refinery the air was so thick with the caustic used in the refining process that the mastic covering the thermal system insulation on the tanks and vessels was literally eaten away Fig.

Environmental disturbance can take a long time to hap- pen. The asbestos-cement panels and louvers on the cooling tower in Fig. Asbestos-cement roofing and, to a lesser extent, siding is sub- ject to weathering that is mainly due to water and its vari- ous chemical contaminants [1]. After many years, exterior surfaces can degrade to the point that asbestos fibers are exposed and released Fig.

This is because the fifth and sixth AHERA categories distinguish between potential for damage, which exists in all cases to some degree, and potential for significant damage. Rather than attempt to predict the severity of the damage that might occur, ASTM E assesses the likelihood that Fig. A Potential for Disturbance rating of Medium would indicate a potential for damage, while a rating of High would indicate a significant potential for dam- age.

A table of qualitative assessments is of little value for decision-making unless it is properly sorted. Quantitative Assessment Protocol The Quantitative Assessment Protocol applies numerical rat- ings to the physical assessment factors — Current Condition and Potential for Disturbance — and tabulates them as dis- Fig. The ratings can also be plotted on an Abatement vs.

This is not an impossible sit- uation: if a furred-in chase protecting pipe risers along a busy aisle in a warehouse was to be removed, it would not be long before the currently-intact insulation was damaged. The following example of a boiler plant illustrates the use of the quantitative protocol. Figure 57 shows twelve examples of thermal system insulation in the plant. Millette, Ph.

Table 2 — Qualitative rankings for potential for disturbance. Qualitative Ranking Numerical Ratings Description of Current Condition Good 8, 9, 10 Surfacing material has no visible damage or small amounts of damage; covering on thermal system insulation is intact or has small amounts of damage; miscellaneous materials are intact or have small amounts of damage; no visible debris or small amounts of debris. Fair 4, 5, 6, 7 Surfacing material has moderate but not extensive amounts of visible damage; covering on thermal system insulation is cut or torn, exposing moderate but not extensive amounts of insulation; moderate but not extensive damage to miscellaneous materials such as floor tile; moderate but not extensive amounts of visible dust and debris.

Poor 1, 2, 3 Extensive damage to surfacing material; covering on thermal system insulation is cut or torn extensively and insulation itself is damaged; miscellaneous materials such as floor tile extensively damaged and underlying mastic exposed; extensive amounts of debris.

Table 4 — Numerical ratings for potential for disturbance. Pipes in corner pit A. Pipes on platform B. Damaged pipes C. Debris under tank D. Damaged fitting E. Steam drum-boiler 1 F. Steam drum-boiler 2 G. Steam drum-boiler 3 H. Steam drum- boiler 4 I. Boiler roofing J. Radiator pipes K. Hot water tank L. Table 5 — ACM ranked by current condition and potential for disturbance.

Item FIG. Of the functional spaces and homogeneous areas in Table 5, highest priority would go to the tank and fittings in the southwest comer due to their poor condition and high accessibility. At the bottom of the table, the tank insulation in the North Room, which is virtually intact and less acces- sible, can continue to be managed in place.

Figure 58 is such a chart for the ACM in Table 5. The axes of the chart are Current Condition and Potential for Disturbance. Each type of ACM is identified by a letter corresponding to Table 5 at the intersection of the ratings for that material. In this example, the line is bent toward the upper left comer, indicating a bias toward management-in-place. Drawing the Line. Poor Fair Good Current condition Fig. Sidebar 2 — Drawing the Line The simplest Abatement vs. To properly divide the chart we need to define the inter- cepts — where the line crosses the vertical axes — and its shape — how far it bends toward the upper left or lower right corners.

Defining the intercepts The intercepts reflect the extent of damage and potential distur- bance the Asbestos Program Manager is willing to tolerate. Each of the straight lines that could be drawn with this approach reflects a different propensity to tolerate existing and future damage. Line C in Fig.

Bending the line Complexity takes into account the difficulty of access to the ACM, the difficulty of preparation such as de-energizing and cooling pressurized lines , disruption of operations, tight working condi- tions, hot or cold environments, type of PPE required and other factors in addition to the difficulty of the work itself. Therefore, higher complexity and frequency suggest that abatement might be the more desirable solution for one or more reasons.

Bending the line in this manner places more area above the line in the abatement region, so that less ACM will be assessed in the region under the line and man- aged in place. It is worth repeating that this assessment protocol, the tables and charts are tools to help the Asbestos Program Manager make informed decisions about abatement of ACM and managing it in place.

It will help you visualize your decisions whether actually drawing the line on paper or just conjuring up a mental image of where it might be located. Bear in mind that the Decision Chart is merely a graphical tool for visualizing the relative priorities of abating ACM vs. Reference [1] Brown, S. There are other reasons to abate ACM, which is usually done by removing it. The most common reason is compliance with the NESHAP regulation that effectively mandates abatement of any ACM that might be disturbed during reno- vation or demolition work.

Abatement projects are also undertaken to reduce the building owner 's liability, as part of a financial transaction and for other reasons. When the abatement project starts is a matter of respon- sibilities. For the consultant, it could be said to start with preparing the plans and specifications, or even during the Project Design Survey, depending on how the contract with the building owner is written. It starts for the project moni- tor whenever he gets involved in these activities, and prefer- ably no later than the Pre-Bid Conference.

For the abatement contractor, the project starts upon award of the contract, with the Pre-Construction Meeting being the first time the crew mobilizes at the site. The role of the project monitor see The Project Monitor, Sidebar 1. When we speak of the abatement contractor, it means the firm unless the context mentions the abatement contractor 's supervisor. See Contractual Relationships and Responsibilities Sidebar 2. This is not intended to slight the contributions of the architect or engi- neer and the general contractor when renovation is involved, and their participation will be noted when appropriate.

Class I work is removal of surfacing materials as represented by fireproofing and acoustical plaster, and thermal systems insulation, typified by pipe, boiler, and duct insulation. These materials comprise the majority of friable ACM, removal of which is typically per- formed in connection with renovation or demolition.

This is the most complex and expensive type of response action undertaken, and the type most fraught with potential for contamination and liability if something goes wrong. In the world of response actions, this is the big leagues, and the term often used to describe it is gross removal.

Not to minimize their importance, we will deal with miscella- neous materials and other abatement methodologies in the next chapter. Abatement Project Design Anyone who prepares an asbestos abatement project design must be accredited as a project designer and must also be licensed in some states. Training courses for project design- ers assume a background in architecture, engineering, or some other aspect of the construction field.

For example, industrial hygiene courses cover the design of ventilation systems for manu- facturing operations, but not HVAC systems for ofhces and other conditioned spaces in buildings. This person needs to know where asbestos is found in buildings and how it is supposed to be removed. These creden- tials can be based on a combination of academic degrees, spe- cialized training such as the AHERA courses, and experience in asbestos work or related fields. EPA does not consider the project monitor to be conducting the respionse action— the abatement contractor does that— so the project monitor need not be accredited as an abatement supervisor or worker.

In the definition of Inspection, one of the three aaivities listed in the Model Accreditation Plan for which accreditation is not required is "c. Visual inspections. In Illinois and Texas, they are called project managers. New Jersey calls them Asbestos Safety Technicians. Often, the air monitoring aspects of the project monitor's job is stressed in these regulations, and the connection between a clean site and clean air needs to be appreciated.

However, nei- ther NIOSH S82 nor any other air-monitoring course that I am aware of provides enough information on visual inspection, building characteristics, abatement procedures, or the other things that project monitors need to know to fulfill their respon- sibilities under ASTM E The ASTM Standards for Asbestos Control course provides a thorough grounding in these funda- mentals The "Understanding Building Systems" and "Uses of Asbestos" lectures in the AHERA Building Inspector course also provides a good foundation for this work, and completion of a course for abatement contractor supervisors, or its equivalent, is also beneficial.

If the project monitor also participates in the Project Design Survey, or take bulk samples during the project, the qualifications of an accredited inspector as described in Chapter 2 apply. ASTM E recognizes the physically demanding aspects of the project monitor's job, which can be nearly as rigorous as that of the abatement workers and supervisor. Visual acuity is impor- tant, because visual inspections are done with two of the most sensitive instruments at the project monitor's disposal: his own eyes.

One of the most important qualifications for the project monitor is knowing how to act at a construction site and, in par. As the owner's representative who interprets and enforces the contract documents, the project mon- itor needs experience in monitoring the work — not just the air— at abatement projects. Most of the difficulties, delays, and litigation that arise from abatement projects have more to do with basic construction management problems than with asbestos or air samples.

An "apprenticeship" under a "mentor" , with experience in the field is advised before taking on full I responsibility for monitoring a project. How well that responsibility is defined for any given project depends on the thoroughness of the building survey and the project design. Abatement Drawings The Project Design Survey was covered extensively in Chapter 2, and it is time to see how that information is trans- lated into the plans and specifications.

It does not suffice to simply put a copy of the drawings from the survey report in the bid package for the abatement project. The bid package should include drawings of sufficient number, size and detail to convey to the contractor the infor- mation needed to remove ACM as intended by the project designer. Before committing to the preparation of abatement drawings, find out how they will be reproduced and distributed.

Will they be reproduced on paper or the files put on a CD? What for- mat does the building owner need the files in? Can enhance- ments such as color and photographs be used on the abatement drawings? The ASTM Standards for Asbestos Control courses include workshop exercises to illustrate some of the chal- lenges of asbestos abatement. Figure 64 is a section through a fictitious building used in one of these exercises that assumes abatement will take place in phases on all levels of the building. Chapter 2 contained an example of a project Figs.

For example, consultants regularly retain one another for assistance on projects. Also, building owners often conduct their own visual inspections, and may even conduct the abatement with their own personnel. Regardless of these relationships, it is important to establish and maintain the independence of the consultant and project moni- tor from the party doing the actual abatement work — the abate- ment contractor. The responsibilities of the principal participants — the build- ing owner, the owner's representative s and the abatement contractor — are discussed in Section 7 of ASTM E For an abatement project the building owner or, if applicable, a tenant or the property manager usually contracts with the abatement contractor for the performance of the work; removal, encapsula- tion, or enclosure of the ACM.

The building owner enters into a separate contract with another individual or company , gener- ally as a consultant who acts as the building owner's representa- tive. This latter individual or company is contractually responsible to the building owner, not to the abatement contractor.

The con- tractual relationships of these participants are shown in Fig. However, asbestos abatement rarely takes place for its own sake. It usually precedes a renovation or demolition of a build- ing, primarily to satisfy requirements in the asbestos NESHAP or state or local regulations. The building owner may also decide that a convenient and cost-effective opportunity exists to remove the asbestos while the premises are vacated for rea- sons other than renovation. The abatement contractor and the project monitor or, in some cases, the consultant or other entity to whom the project monitor reports effectively hand the renovation contractor and architect a building in which asbestos has been abated to the extent specified in the con- tract documents.

This is done under contracts that must clearly separate the abatement project from other work at the site, as shown in Fig. The building owner has the option of contracting directly with the asbestos consultant and abatement contractor or deal- ing with them through sub-contracts from the architect or engi- neer and general contractor. The advantages and disadvantages to both approaches become evident when considering the prin- cipal contractual responsibilities shown in Table 6. These respon- sibilities are for an abatement project preceding renovation or demolition.

A building owner who contracts directly with all four participants must manage four con- tracts, whereas this burden is halved if the general contractor and architect or engineer hire the abatement contractor and asbestos consultant, respectively. Shifting the burden of con- tract management to another party, however, lessens the degree of direct control that the building owner has over the work. The architect's or engineer's job is to design and manage the renovation, and in the process provide the asbestos consultant with drawings for designing the abatement project.

The architect or engineer is not responsible for any abatement-related work unless directed by the building owner to manage the asbestos consultant through a sub-contract. In this case, the asbestos con- sultant answers contractually to the building owner through the architect or engineer, not through the general contractor. The general contractor is primarily responsible for the reno- vation, but is sometimes interposed between the building owner and the abatement contractor, with the latter being hired as a subcontractor.

Although such arrangements are distasteful to many general contractors, because of the liability and insurance implications of asbestos, they are often forced to accept them on publicly bid projeas. As supervisor of the entire project, the general contractor shall ascertain whether the asbestos contractor is in compliance with this standard, and shall require such contractor to come into compliance with this standard when necessary.

This may be difficult when the renovation and abatement contracts are awarded to the low bidders. Sub-contract arrangements do not alter the responsibilities of the building owner, abatement contractor, and project monitor as discussed herein, nor should they compromise the independence of the project monitor in performing his work.

To the contrary, the intervening general contractor and architect or engineer takes on a responsibility to support the efforts of the other parties in fulfilling the requirements of the subcontracts.

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This includes scheduling a Pre-Bid Conference for prospective bidders on the abatement subcontract to view the work and become familiar with the requirements. Regardless of the contractual framework, the pressures of cost and schedule affecting the sub- sequent renovation or demolition project should not be used as an excuse to compromise the quality of the abatement work.

The abatement contractor's responsibilities do not depend on who has contracted for his services and pays the invoices. The advantage of a direct contract with the building owner is the access it provides in event of a project management or payment issue and the equal status the abatement contractor enjoys with the general contractor.

The abatement contractor's job is to remove the asbestos, clean the work site and dispose of the asbestos waste.


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The contractor's competent person is expected to assist the project monitor during the visual inspections. The asbestos consultant's responsibilities, like the abatement contractor's, do not depend on who has contracted for his serv- ices. The advantages of direct access to the building owner in event of a project management or payment issue, and the equal status the asbestos consultant enjoys with the architect or engi- neer and the general contractor, are significant. If the job includes removal of the fireproofing inside the soffit, this should be indicated on the drawing.

The drawings should indicate whether removal of the fireproofing or a plaster ceiling, insulated pipes or ducts, or other ACM — is within the scope of the project. Any such material not within the scope of work should be identified on the drawings. These beams were well above floor level and not accessible to building occupants. We will come back to this situation in Chapter 5. It is worth stating this explicitly on the cover page of the specification. Careful reading and editing of the entire specification is necessary to avoid this problem.

Page 68 discusses an exam- ple of referencing the AHERA regulations for final air sampling that resulted in litigation because the contrac- tor and consultant differed on their interpretations. It is important to note here that the paragraphs specifi- cally describing the visual inspection process must be con- sistent with the remainder of the specification. It does no good to say in one part of the specification that there will be one final visual inspection before air samples are taken and then discuss elsewhere the ASTM E approach of two visual inspections for completeness of removal and com- pleteness of clean-up.

One important addition to any specifi- cation is the flow chart in Fig. This chart shows the sequence of activi- ties that we will discuss in the remainder of this chapter. The specification should include a detailed, step-by-step explana- tion of this sequence, tailored to the particular site and proj- ect. Project designers may copy the flow chart and incorpo- rate it in their specifications, providing that credit is given to ASTM and this Manual as the source. ASTM E emphasizes that its provisions are not intended to supersede or negate those of any contractual document between the parties involved in an abatement project.

On the contrary, if the scope of work is properly written, they are quite compatible. However, situations may exist where state regulations or a master specifica- tion may require deviating slightly from the sequence shown in the chart. See Inspections at the Conclusion of the Project. The abatement specification should not mention replacement materials.

As the building owner 's representa- tive, the consultant is responsible for certifying that the ACM has been removed according to the contract documents and the area can be renovated for re-occupancy. Renovation will include replacement of fireproofing, mechanical insulation and finishes to bring the area back into compliance with codes before it can be re-occupied, and this is the responsibil- ity of the architect, engineer and general contractor — not the asbestos consultant or abatement contractor.

Furthermore, the specification and inspection of replacement materials in some jurisdictions requires professional licenses that most asbestos consultants do not maintain. Bid Solicitation There is more to a bid package than the plans and specifica- tions. The building owner may want the consultant to prepare the actual contract that the abatement contractor will execute, as well as the documents to solicit the bids.

The elements of a typical bid package are described in The Bid Package Sidebar 3. An important part of the bid solicitation process is the Pre-Bid Conference, described next. The Pre-Bid Conference The consultant should conduct, and the project monitor should participate in, the Pre-Bid Conference, at which abatement contractors can inspect the site before submitting their bids for the work. Letting the prospective bidders ask questions in a forum where everyone can hear the answers levels the playing field for all contractors. Invitation to Bid — A cover page including the time and place ' of the Pre-Bid Conference and the deadline for submitting pro- posals.

This is followed by detailed instructions on how to pre-! Indicate to whom the proposals must be submitted and require that the building owner receive the original before the deadline, with a copy to the consultant. Proposal for the Contract— The cover page re states the sub- mittal deadline, and the detailed instructions that follow ask the bidder to acknowledge all addenda and state the amount of the offer. Provide a place for the pricing of alternates, such as exclud- ing certain items from the scope of work.

As an attachment to this section, provide a Statement of Qualifications form for the bidder to complete. Discourage sub- mittal of company brochures in lieu of this form and emphasize that completion of the form Is necessary for consideration of a bid. This form asks for the information that many specifications request in a section on Qualifications, but the time to submit that information is with the proposal, not after the contract is awarded.

The form requests details on the qualifications of the contractor, including recent projects of comparable size and client references. Ask the bidder to acknowledge that the supervisor is a compretent person as defined in the OSHA construction industry standard. Training certificates and licenses should be submitted for enough workers to show that the contractor has adequate manpower for the job.

Check to see that the training certificates and licenses don't expire before the project is expected to be finished. Due to privacy and identity theft concerns, ask the bidders not to include copies of medical examination results or other informa tion with a worker's Social Security Number.

Unfortunately, the SSN is still used on some state licenses and training certificates. If such dcKuments are received as part of a bid, it would be prudent! These requirements may be made part of the specification by referencing other documents in which they appear. The drawings should be prepared for the abatement project and not just be copies of the drawings from the Baseline Survey. They should incorporate all of the information from the Project Design Survey that can be effectively conveyed in a drawing format Abbreviated Form of Contract — This is the "boilerplate" construction contract with a few modifications for abatement work The contract that goes into the bid package has blanks for the contractor's name and the contract amount, to be filled in after the contract is awarded, and signature blocks for both par- ties.

This section will be lengthy, and some government contracts for abatement projects are over an inch thick The price for preparing, copying and distributing such extensive dcKumenta- tion should reflect the considerable amount of work involved. Health and Safety Certifications — Clients with very strict safety policies may require that copies of these policies and qual- ification forms be included m the bid packages so their staff can review the respronses for compliance by the bidders with their safety requirements.

UJi aii. Clearance between the top of the duct and the ceiling was about half an inch, which was barely enough to determine that the ACM did not extend into this space.

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However, debris from scraping the ceiling was sure to get into this space. After discussing it during the Pre-Bid Conference, it was decided to leave the duct in place and mark it for special attention during cleaning, visual inspection, and aggressive air sampling. F'9- 69 — Air duct close to ceiling makes cleaning and inspec- tion difficult.

Manual 23 MNLRD Asbestos Control: Surveys, Assessment, Abatement and Maintenance: 3rd Edition

Questions raised at the Pre-Bid Conference are better addressed through an addendum prior to the bid submittals than with change orders after the contract is let. The worst time to confront them is during the visual inspections at the conclusion of the project under pressure to complete the job. Slightly less so is the prospect of contractors attending the Pre-Bid Conference and pointing out such potential situations that might have been overlooked in the project design.

Remember, some of those contractors have been around for a while and they may know the building as well or better than the project designer who prepared the plans and specifications. The Pre-Bid Conference is also a good time to set the tone for the project regarding the expectations to pass the visual inspections. If the abatement contractor declines to bid on the basis of that knowledge, it may turn out to be better for all concerned. It is unfortunate that many publicly bid abatement proj- ects do not require a prior site visit as a condition of sub- mitting a bid.

As a result, the successful contractor often finds more asbestos than he bargained for, or other condi- tions that make the job more difficult and wipe out the antic- ipated profit. The situation is exacerbated if the building suiwey and project design were inadequate and did not clearly define the building owners expectations in the scope of work. The result is a confrontation over how much asbestos the contractor is obligated to remove, resulting in delays, acrimony, and, often, litigation.

During the Project After the contract is awarded, the consultant schedules and conducts the Pre-Construction Meeting, which is usually the successful contractors first look at the site since the Pre- Bid Conference. The project monitor should use the Pre- Constmction Meeting to reinforce the tone set at the Pre-Bid Conference regarding expectations for the work to pass visual inspection, as well as for the preparation and abate- ment activities preceding the inspections. Differing Site Conditions There is often a substantial delay between the submittal of bids and the contract award, or the contract award and the actual start of abatement.


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  7. Delays of more than a year are not uncommon, particularly where abatement is part of a complex, phased renovation project in a large facility. During this time, things happen to the building and the ACM. Demolition and removal of interior walls and fixtures may occur, not always by those who know or care what asbestos looks like or how to handle it. A vacated area may be scav- enged by maintenance workers, for example, and while they do not mean to knock the insulation off the water pipes when they remove the plumbing fixtures, it happens anyway. The electrician thinks he is being helpful by removing the light fixtures from the ceiling, and knocks a lot of plaster loose in the process Fig.

    Vacant buildings are some- times vandalized in the interim Fig. The abatement contractor and project monitor subsequently find debris and asbestos contamination in a room that was clean and orderly during the Pre-Bid Conference. This is called Differing Site Conditions in the contract documents, which should specify that compensation and schedule relief are due the contractor for the additional effort to remedy such situations. The time to address the matter is at the Pre-Construction Meeting. Inspection During Area Preparation The project monitor is required to visit the job site reg- ularly to maintain continual cognizance over the progress of the work and to address problems as they arise.

    The intent of ASTM E 1 is to maintain the work site as clean as possi- ble on a continuing basis, rather than depend on an intensive last-minute cleanup effort when the temptation exists for schedule pressure and cost considerations to compromise standards of performance. Some state regulatory agencies perform visual inspec- tions at various stages of the project, such as when area preparations are complete, before final air samples are taken and after the critical barriers and decontamination facilities are dismantled.

    Of course, their inspections are not con- ducted according to the contractual documents, but accord- ing to the regulations of their respective agencies. As noted earlier, visual inspection procedures in state regulations are usually consistent with ASTM E , which may even be specifically referenced. If all parties adhere to the concepts of ASTM E 1 as elaborated upon in this Manual, there should be few surprises for anyone.

    The proj- ect designer should have become familiar enough with the building to anticipate which parts of it are unusually sus- ceptible to contamination and specified appropriate protec- tive measures. The project monitor is supposed to verify that the contractor has carried out these measures. The contractor does not appreciate having to tear up plastic to prove that something underneath is protected, or being asked to protect some- thing that could have been dealt with earlier.

    During area preparation, the contractor builds an enclo- sure that prevents contamination of the building from two sources: airborne fibers and contaminated water. Therefore, asbestos contamination is prevented by controlling the media that carry the fibers and debris. They are defined in ASTM E as follows; "One or more layers of rigidly-supported plastic sheet- ing sealed over all openings into an asbestos work area with the exception of make-up air provisions and means of entry and exit , designed to prevent air- borne asbestos fibers or asbestos-contaminated water from migrating to an adjacent area.

    To preclude the escape of airborne fibers, the project monitor carefully examines all rigid and flexible bairiers across hallways and doors, between the tops of interior walls and the deck, over windows, grille vents and other openings between the removal area and adjacent spaces, including outdoors.

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    A critical barrier across a hallway may consist of the doors themselves, sealed shut and covered with plastic, a temporary wall of studs and plywood or wall- board, or two layers of 6-mil 0. On some larger projects, temporary structures of considerable size may have to be constructed to form parts of the enclosure and critical bairiers Figs. To prevent the escape of airborne fibers, the project monitor verifies that seams are sealed with spray adhesive and tape, edges are caulked, and all penetrations are sealed.

    To prevent water from running underneath the barrier and carrying asbestos debris out of the enclosure, the bottom edge should be caulked. This is a time to pay attention to details. While the crit- ical barrier is being erected, imagine the plastic coming loose at the top and try to figure out where water that got behind the plastic would go. If the water ran down the bar- rier, could it leak through a seam and penetrate to the other side? Could water leak under the barrier if it ran down to the floor? Are there horizontal seams and edges that could Fig.

    If there is a chance water could find cracks and seams to leak through and carry debris to the side of the barrier in the occupied area of the building, the barrier should be modified to eliminate those leak paths.

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    Critical barriers serve another purpose besides separat- ing the removal area from occupied spaces in the building. Critical barriers over windows, doors, and other penetra- tions in the building envelope affect the integrity of the enclosure itself. To appreciate this we need to understand the operation of a negative pressure enclosure.

    Figure 76 is a schematic illustration of a negative pressure enclosure with a ceiling scrape in progress. This pressure differential must be at Fig. The project monitor should determine the number of negative air machines needed for each enclosure. Determine the volume of the enclosure — This enclosure was 30 ft 9.

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    In practice, they deliver a fraction of their rated capacity, because airflow through them decreases as the HEPA-filters and the pre-filters load up and the fan wears out with use. Four would be required, and having an extra one installed in case a machine stops working should be required by the specification. Figure 77 shows the same schematic enclosure with air leaking through a broken window: A on the other wall. The filter shall exhibit a minimum effi- ciency of We will use the existing information to locate previously identified asbestos products and reassess its condition.

    The survey report accessed through our online risk management portal NexGen will include new photographs of those materials together with a new recommendation on how to safely manage those materials. Additionally, our customers can also benefit from a dedicated risk management consultant who will provide strategic asbestos management advice based on the recommendations from your report. Previously known as a type 3 asbestos survey under the old MDHS Guidance, this survey is fully intrusive and can be targeted to areas which may be affected by proposed refurbishment works.

    This type of survey is more intrusive than a management survey old type 2 and should be undertaken alongside a project-specific plan of work to ensure that the survey covers all areas planned for refurbishment. This survey will identify asbestos containing materials which will require removal or treatment prior to the planned works. In order for these materials to be removed safely and to the correct extent, we can also provide a project-specific asbestos removal tender specification as part of our asbestos abatement project management service.

    Pre-demolition asbestos surveys were previously known as a type 3 asbestos survey under the old MDHS Guidance. This type of asbestos survey should be undertaken for all demolition projects to ensure that any asbestos-containing materials identified within the survey can be removed by an asbestos removal contractor prior to demolition of the building. This type of asbestos survey is fully intrusive and should not be undertaken in a property that is occupied or due to be reoccupied after the survey has been completed. To support this we can offer CDM compliance and health and safety advice.