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Once Guru Sahib was coming back from the tour of Malwa and Doaba regions, Mohamad Yarbeg Khan, son of Mukhlis Khan, who was killed by Guru Hargobind in a battle attacked the kafla of Guru Sahib with the force of one thousand armed men. The unwarranted attack was repulsed by a few hundred Saint Soliders of Guru Sahib with great courge and bravery. The enemy suffered a heavy loss of life and fled the scene. This self-defense measure, a befitting reply to the unwarranted armed attack of the privileged muslims , was an example for those who professed the theory of so called non-violence or "Ahimsa Parmo Dharma".

Guru Sahib often awarded various Sikh warriors with gallantry awards. Guru Sahib also established an Aurvedic herbal medicine hospital and a research centre at Kiratpur Sahib. There also he maintained a zoo. Once Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah Jahan fell seriously ill by some unknown disease. The best physicians available in the country and abroad were consulted, but there was no improvement. At last the emperor made a humble request to Guru Sahib for the treatment of his son. Guru Sahib accepting the request, handed over some rare and suitable medicines to the messenger of the emperor.

The life of Dara Shikoh was saved from the cruel jaws of death. The emperor, whole heartily thanked and wanted to grant some "Jagir", but Guru Sahib never accepted. He established Sikh missionary seats Manjis. Guru Har Rai Sahib faced some serious difficulties during the period of his guruship. The corrupt massands, Dhir Mals and Minas always tried to preclude the advancement of Sikh religion. One day the Sikhs asked the Guru whether those who read the Gurus' hymns without understanding them derived any spiritual advantage from it.

The Guru gave no reply at the time, and next morning went hunting. En route, the Guru came across a broken pot which had held butter. The rays of the sun were melting the butter on the broken pot fragments. The Guru took one of these fragments in his hand and said, "Look my Sikhs, broken pot shards - when they are heated, the butter that adhered to them readily melts. As the grease adheres to the potshards, so to do the Gurus' hymns to the hearts of his Sikhs. At the hour of death the Gurus' instruction shall assuredly bear fruit.

Whether understood or not, it has within it the seed of salvation. Perfume still clings to a broken vase. And even though he may not fully understand them, God will undoubtedly assist him. He was in such a state of abstraction that he became quite unconscious. He grew as absorbed in the sight of the Guru as a drop of rain in the ocean.

At mid-day, when dinner was announced, the Guru made no response. When the announcement was repeated an hour later, he still remained silent. A longer interval later, the call was again made for the third time and cook asked permission to serve the food, but again the Guru did not speak.

Several Sikhs gathered together and were about to make a representation to the Guru, when he finally spoke. Bhai Gonda is in Kabul. He is in thought, word, and deed, a saint of the Guru. He today clasped my feet. How can I take them away from him? How can I go take my dinner until he lets go? I am therefore waiting until the conclusion of his meditation and obeisance. Dara Shikoh was the heir-apparent, and was very dear to his father. Aurangzeb was very cunning, clever and ambitious, and was fixated on succeeding to the throne.

Astrologers were sent for, pirs and fakirs were called, all known charms, spells and incantations were tried but to no avail. They were of the opinion that if two ounces of chebulic myrobalan scientific name: termininalia chebula ; known in Ayurvedic medicine as Aralu , credited with having laxative and stomachic properties and a clove weighing one masha were administered, his health could be restored. The Emperor humbled himself before the Guru and sent a letter.

The Guru was pleased that the Emperor had such confidence in him as to write such a friendly letter, and consented to give the required medicines. The axe cuts the sandal tree, yet the sandal perfumes the axe. The Guru ought, therefore, to return good for evil. The ingredients were weighed and it was explained that these medicines would cause the hardest substance taken to be digested. To these ingredients, the Guru added a pearl which was to be ground and used as a subsidiary remedy. The Emperor was naturally very pleased and forgot all his enemity with the Guru, and vowed that he would never again cause him annoyance.

His medicine was administered and effected a speedy and complete cure. After the death of Shah Jahan, the attitude of the state headed by Aurangzeb towards the non-muslims, turned hostile. Emperor Aurangzeb made an excuse for the help rendered to prince Dara Shakoh by Guru Sahib during the war of succession and framed false charges against Guru Sahib who was summoned to Delhi. He tried to clarify some mis-understandings regarding Guru Ghar and Sikh faith, created by Dhirmals and Minas.

Yet another trap, which he could not escape, was to clarify the meaning of the verse "The Ashes of the Mohammadan fall into the potter's clot, it is moulded into pots and bricks, and they cry out as they burn". Baba Ram Rai in order to please the emperor and gain his sympathy distorted Gurbani. When Guru Har Rai Ji was informed about this incident, he immediately excommunicated Ram Rai Ji from the Sikh Panth and never met him, through the later pleaded repeatedly for forgiveness. Thus Guru Sahib established a strict property for the Sikhs against any alteration of original verse in Guru Granth Sahib and the basic conventions set up by Guru Nanak Sahib.

It turns out that this was his granduncle Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. The following is a summary of the main highlights of Guru Ji short life:. This act inflamed Ram Rai Ji with jealousy and he complained to the emperor Aurangzeb against his father's decision. The emperor replied in favour issuing orders through Raja Jai Singh to the young Guru to appear before him.

At first the Guru was not willing, but at the repeated requests of his followers and Raja Jai Singh, he agreed to go to Delhi. At this occasion, a large number of devotees from every walk of life came to bid him farewell. They followed the Guru Sahib up to village Panjokhara near Ambala. From this place the Guru advised his followers to return to their respective homes. Then Guru Sahib, along with a few of his family members proceeded towards Delhi. But before leaving this place Guru Harkrishan Sahib showed the great powers which were bestowed upon him by the Almighty God.

Then Guru Sahib called a water-carrier named Chhaju Ram, and with the Guru's grace, this unlettered man was able to expound the philosophy of the Gita. When Pandit Lal Chand listened the scholarly answer from Chhaju, he bent his head in shame and besought the forgiveness of Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib was lodged in the palace of Raja Jai Singh.

The people from all walks of life flocked the palace to have a glimpse Darshan of Guru Harkrishan Sahib. Some chronicles mention that prince Muzzam also paid a visit. In order to test the Guru's intelligence, of which everyone spoke very highly, Raja Jai Singh requested the Guru Sahib to identify the real queen out of the equally and well dressed ladies surrounding Guru Sahib.

The Guru at once went to a lady dressed as a maidservant and sat in her lap. This lady was the real queen. There are also many different stories we find in some other Sikh accounts relating to Guru Sahib's mental ability. Within a short span of time Guru Harkrishan Sahib through his fraternization with the common masses gained more and more adherents in the capital.


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At the time, a severe epidemic of cholera and smallpox broke out in Delhi. The young Guru began to attend the sufferers irrespective of cast and creed. Particularly, the local Muslim population was much impressed with the purely humanitarian deeds of the Guru Sahib and nicknamed him Bala Pir child prophet. Even Aurangzeb did not try to disturb Guru Harkrishan Sahib sensing the tone of the situation but on the other hand never dismissed the claim of Ram Rai also. While serving the suffering people from the epidemic day and night, Guru Sahib himself was seized with high fever.

The severe attack of smallpox confined him to bed for several days. When his condition became serious, he called his mother and told her that his end was drawing near. When asked to name his successor, he merely exclaimed 'Baba Bakala'. These words were only meant for the future Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib, who was residing at village Bakala near river Beas in Punjab province. In the last moment Guru Harkrishan Sahib wished that nobody should mourn him after his death and instructed to sing the hyms of Gurbani. Guru Har Rai passed away on October 6, Guru Har Krishan consoled the disciples.

He asked them not to give way to despair but abide by the Will of the Almighty. All should sing God's praises and not weep or lament. As days went by, the disciples began pouring in from far and near. They were delighted to have a sight of the Guru. He sat on the throne, a small figure, young in years, but mature in wisdom. Says Bhai Santokh Singh, "The early morning sun looks small in size, but its light is everywhere. So was Guru Har Krishan' s fame, without limit. They had their heart's desires fulfilled and their sins erased. The Sikhs recognized him as the picture of Guru Nanak.

Guru Har Krishan had a rare ability in explaining passages from the Holy Granth. He delighted the hearts of his disciples by his commentaries. He reminded them to cherish the One God alone, and asked them to discard passions and learn the virtues of patience, charity and love. Thus Guru Har Krishan carried on the teaching of the Gurus and preserved intact the legacy he had inherited from them. The Baisakhi day March 29 of brought to Kiratpur vast numbers of followers. The festival lasted.

In the sangat of Sialkot district was Pair Mall of Pasrur, along with his family. His son, Khem Karan, was a promising youth. Mata Bassi betrothed her granddaughter, Bibi Rup Kaur, to him. Nuptials were held on December 3, Emperor Aurangzeb was not pleased to hear about the growing fame of Guru Har Krishan. He sent for him to Delhi as he had sent for his father, Guru Har Rai. Guru Har Rai had not gone himself, but had sent his elder son, Ram Rai, to the emperor' s court. They said to him with clasped hands, "We are thy servants, Lord.

With thy knowledge of all the three worlds, thou knowest best. Along the way, he instructed the disciples who came to call on him. Stay here a day so that they may have the chance of seeing you, Master. In that village lived a pandit, Lal Chand by name, who was proud of his caste as well as of his learning. He came to see the Guru and spoke with derision: "It is said that you sit on the gaddi of Guru Nanak. But what do you know of the old religious books'? Guru Har Krishan asked Dargah Mall to call him. As Chhajju Ram came, the Guru enquired if he would explain to the pandit the gist of the Bhagavadgita.

The illiterate villager astonished everyone by his cogent commentary on the sacred book. Lal Chand's pride was overcome. Humbly he fell at the Guru's feet. Both he and Chhajju Ram became the Guru's disciples and travelled with him up to Kurukshetra. Lal Singh met with a hero's death fighting in the battle of Chamkaur on December 7, The house was a spacious one "designed to suit all the seasons of the year. They came chanting the holy songs and brought offerings with them.

As says the Mahima Prakash, the emperor had planned a trial. He had two larg. One of these displayed ornaments, clothes and toys. The other had in it a holy man's cloak and cowl. Both were presented to Guru Har Krishan. He rejected the tray containing ornaments and clothes, and accepted the one containing the cloak. The emperor was convinced of his holiness. He thought he would invite him again and see him perform a miracle.

Guru Har Krishan guessed what the emperor had in his mind. He told himself that he would not see his face again. He believed that no one should attempt a mirage and try to disturb the law of God. Guru Har Krishan knew how his father had punished Ram Rai, his elder brother, for showing feats in Aurangzib's court. The Rani had devised her own test. The Guru accepted the invitation. At the entrance to the inner apartments of the palace, he was received by the Raja's servants with due honour. As he stepped inside, the ladies, in their costly jewels and clothes, bowed in reverencers He walked past them acknowledging their greetings.

As he came near one dressed modestly in a maid's coarse homespun, he stopped and said, You are the Rani. Why should you have dressed yourself in a maid's suit? Suddenly one day Guru Har Krishan was taken ill with a fever. The fever turned out to be the beginning of an attack of smallpox. The Guru's tender body was ravaged by the disease. The Guru's mother, Mata Sulakkhani, became very sad.

You are the dispeller of the world' s sorrows and sufferings. Your very sight removes the ailments of others. Why do you lie sick now? Both happiness and suffering are part of life. What is ordained must happen. This is what Guru Nanak taught. Whatever He does is His order.

One must walk in the light of His command. The Sikhs wondered why the Guru suffered thus. They were in despair and wondered who would take the gaddi after him. It is everlasting and will command increasing honour. The Granth is the Lord of all. He who wants to see me, let him with faith and love see the Granth. So will he shed all his sins. He who would wish to speak with the Guru, let him read the Granth with devotion. He who practises its teachings will obtain all the four padarathas, or cherished objects of human life.

He who has faith gains all. He who is without faith acquires but little. None in this world liveth forever. The body is mortal. In the Granth abides the Guru' s spirit. Daily bow your head to it. So will you conquer your passions and attain liberation. Tears filled the Sikhs' eyes as they listened to what sounded like the last words of the Guru.

Then mother Sulakkhani came forward. With tears in her eyes, she spoke, "How shall I live without thee, son? I was blessed when I came into this family married to the late Guru. I was blessed when you were born. Now I am cast into a bottomless ocean of sorrow. Who would be my rescuer? How does a fish live separated from water? Eternal peace will be yours. Mother Sulakkhani's heart was awakened to the truth and she felt herself released from her worldly chains.

Guru Har Krishan was in a critical state. Yet he did not fail to carry out his important responsibility before he left the mortal world. In his last moments, he was able to nominate his successor. He asked for the ceremonial marks of succession to be fetched. But all he could say was "Baba Bakale. The reference was unmistakably to Tegh Bahadur. Guru Har Krishan passed away on March 30, The next day, they set out for Bakala to inform Guru Tegh Bahadur. While in Delhi, he had met Guru Har Krishan and now he received the news of his passing away. He consoled the Sikhs and taught them to abide by God's Will.

According to an entry in the Bhatt Vahi Talauda Parganah Jind, the ashes were taken from Delhi to Kiratpur where they were mixed with the waters of the Sutlej. The original entry translated as. The ashes were immersed in the River Sutlej. Karahprasad was distributed. The reason why Ram Rai was superseded has already been given in the last chapter. Guru Har Kishen was appointed Guru when he was five years and three months old. Guru Harkrishan ascended the ecclesiastical throne at the age of 5 years and 8 months.

He was blessed with the divine spirit. When Guru Ji came to Delhi, the city was suffering of an epidemic. Guru Ji went all over the city and He gave solace to those in anguish. His Divine presence and Divine Look would rid the patients of their maladies. The masand Gurdas who attended on Ram Rai comforted him," There is no need to be sad. Thou hast many disciples in this part of the country. Even the Emperor himself holdeth thee in honor. His masands went in all directions to announce his succession as Guru but the Sikhs who knew Guru's succession, refused to accept Ram Rai as their Guru.

At that time Ram Rai decided to lay his case before the Emperor. Thus he addressed Aurangzeb,"Sir, my father has appointed my younger brother as successor to him, and now he has taken possession of his throne, his property and offerings. This misfortune has befallen me on account of my obedience to your Majesty. My father was opposed to you on that account, and at his death he ordered my younger brother never to be reconciled to you, and never to look upon your face.

Now I pray thee to summon him to Delhi and order him to exhibit miracles as I have done. This situation provided the Emperor with a good opportunity to realize his own religious mission. Aurangzeb wanted to convert all Hindus to Islam but he apprehended failure in Punjab because the people greatly revered the Guru there. Aurangzeb having contrived this wicked plan, called Raja Jai Singh of Amber Japer and ordered him to summon Guru Har Kishen and said," I wish to see him, be careful that he Guru be treated with all respect on his journey.

When Guru Harkrishan Sahib came to Delhi, tyhe city was then in the grip of an epidemic. Guru Ji went all over the city even in narrow lanes and bylanes. He gave succour to all in anguish without any discrimination whatsoever. His very presence and the Divine Look would rid the patients of their sufferings.

Many writers have shown their disbelief over the fact that Guru Har Kishen being a child, possessed high attainments and he taught with all the confidence to those who asked him about truth. Intelligentsia cannot understand the sanctity of Guruship as they attribute every happening to age, intelligence and experience of a person. It should be noted here that Guru Har Kishen because of his divine prerogatives, had the spiritual powers at the age of five.

His spiritual attainments came with his status of Guruship. As has been explained before, in Sikh Holy Scripture Guru means Jot or Divine Light, once the Guruship is installed, then a person's age, intelligence or experience has no value. It is then the Divine Light that works in that person.

The power of Divine Light is beyond the reach of human intelligence. The intelligentsia cannot perceive or apprehend the power of Divine Light through the media of their technical knowledge. Our so called technical knowledge or the intelligence, in reality is 'I-am-ness' or the veil of ego. God is everywhere and within us too, but this veil of ego separates us from Him and it hides the truth from us.

According to Gurmat, human being as bride and God as bridegroom, live together but the veil of ego separates them. When by the grace of the perfect Guru, this veil of ego is broken, the bride meets the Beloved, God:. Bride and the Bridegroom live together, but the screen of ego hangs in between; When the perfect Guru breaks the veil of ego, O Nanak, we meet our Beloved, God. It is only the Guru's grace that opens up our inner eyes with which we can perceive the Incomprehensible and enter the stage of Eternal Bliss.

Man wondereth at the wonders upon wonders of Creation But it is only he who knoweth God, who obtaineth bliss. There is a famous incident from his early age. The Pundit asked him to recite Salokas from the Geeta since his name was similar to that of Lord Krishna.

Guru Ji invited a mute person called Chhajju Mehra and placed his stick on his head. He immediately started interpreting salokas from the Geeta. Everybody around was dumbstruck. Lal Chand's arrogance too was shattered and he asked for Guru Ji's forgiveness. To reach that stage, a person first must seek Guru's grace. In order to do that, one must abandon the sense of egoism and the pride of technical knowledge; and then submit and surrender unconditionally before the Guru and beg for his grace.

The answer to the question as to how the Guru at the age of five could possess attainments of such a high magnitude lies not in the reasoning of egoistic mind but in the spiritual vision. The answer to the spiritual power of the young Guru lies in the understanding that the Guru though human in body, is Divine in Spirit. Egoistic minds of the so called scholars prohibit them from understanding the Divinity of the Guru. As long as human mind remains under the intoxication of egoism, the cycle of arguments of.

The egoistic mind will then continue to wonder how a five years old Guru could perform those supernatural acts. Raja Jai Singh had previously heard the Guru's praises and was, therefore, pleased at the prospect of making his acquaintance and of listening to his instruction. He sent his emissary to Kiratpur to request the Guru to come to Delhi.

The Guru refused the invitation, for he had been forbidden by his father not to see the Emperor. The Guru may act as he pleases regarding an interview with the Emperor. The Guru set out from Kiratpur. On his way he waited for some Sikhs who had come to Kiratpur after his departure. Among them were the maimed and the leprous, all of whom he cured by the imposition of his hands. At Panjokhra, a village near Ambala, came a proud learned Brahman, who without even saluting the Guru, sat down in is presence. Translate the Gita for me. Chhaju was serving water in the kitchen of the Guru where he had encamped.

The Guru asked the Brahman whether he should translate Gita himself or he should get it done from Chhaju. The Brahman thought, Chhaju who could not even talk, how could he translate it? So he replied after a little pause, that Chhaju should do it. The Guru was always carrying a stick with him. He called Chhaju, put his stick on his head and asked him to answer the Brahman's questions.

To the utter amazement of the Brahman, Chhaju explained in detail each and every verse that the Brahman asked. Upon this the Brahman fell on the lotus feet of the Guru and apologized for his indiscreet behavior. He requested the Guru to stay at his palace. Thousands of people of Delhi came to have 'darshan' holy sight of the Guru. The sick were healed and those in distress were comforted at the very sight of the holy Master.

Now Gurdwara Bangla Sahib stands there. At that time cholera was raging in the area. Guru Ji went through the city, healing the sick. The afflicted were very happy to receive holy water from him. This water has divine qualities and even now people utilise this water for their uncureable illnesses During his stay he propogated Sikhism. This was the time of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The Emperor sent presents at the arrival of the Guru and expressed a wish to see him but the invitation as refused. The Guru said," My elder brother, Ram Rai, is with the Emperor and he will transact all political affairs with His Majesty, and I better not meddle with him.

My mission is to preach the true Name. Ram Rai bears enmity with me on account of Guruship, and if the Emperor shows any favor towards me , Ram Rai will become more hostile and grave dissensions in the family may better be avoided. For this and other reasons my father forbade me to meet the Emperor. The next day the Emperor's son, prince Muazzam paid a visit and conveyed his father's desire to see the Guru. The Guru emphasized that he had already given the reason not to see the Emperor. If the Emperor desired any religious instructions, he would give it to the prince.

If the Emperor understood the religious instructions and acted upon them,. The prince asked for the instructions and the Guru dictated the following Sabad of Guru Nanak:. What dresses, What a pleasant couch for billing and cooing, What an army, what mace-bearers and servants, and what palaces to dwell in? Nanak, except the true Name all things are perishable.

On the instruction of Emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Jai Singh agreed to test the Guru whether he possessed any superhuman power. His head queen dressed like a maid servant and sat among other maid servants and queens. The Guru was requested to identify the head queen Rani which he immediately did.

Upon this Raja Jai Singh and his queens acknowledged the Guru's spiritual power. Cholera and small-pox were raging fiercely in Delhi at that time. The Guru ordered to spare all the offerings to reduce the suffering of the poor. The food, medicine and clothes were distributed among the poor and the sick. He won many followers in this way. When Guru Ji realised that his time has come for ascenscion, he took a coconut and 5 paise and uttered these words " Baba Basehe je Gram Bakaley" - meaning that the next Guru his Grandfather- Guru Teg Bahadur resides in the village of Bakala - who will take over the Guru Ship after him..

Shortly after the above occurrence, the Guru was seized with high fever which was followed by small-pox. His mother sat by him and pleaded," My son, why art thou intent on thy death? Thou hast only lately been seated on the Guru's throne, thou art still a child, and it is too soon for thee to depart. My safety is in His Will. He is the Reaper of His crop; it is His pleasure, and sometimes He reaps it while it is still green, half-green and sometimes when it is ripe.

The Creator will do what is best. The Guru was ill for several days. He knew his end had arrived and called for five paise and a coconut. He waved his hand three times in the air in token of circumambulating his successor and said," Baba Bakale," which meant that his successor would be found at village of Bakala. He then breathed his last on 30th of March, His body was cremated on the bank of river Jamna where now stands the Gurdwara Bala Sahib.

FNIt is said that small-pox was so rampant in Delhi that the Guru out of human compassion took the small-pox to himself and absolved the inhabitants of Delhi of it. Raja Jai Singh got a tank excavated. The Guru dipped his feet in the water of the tank and after that whosoever took bath with that water, was cured from small-pox. The following is a summary of the main highlights of Guruji's life:. Guru Gobind Singh moulded the Sikh Religion into its present form today with the formation of the Khalsa. He was undoubtedly a great man. The tenth Guru teacher of the Sikh faith, was born Gobind Rai.

It may not be out of context to say here that throughout the chronicles of human history, there was no other individual who could be of more inspiring personality than Guru Gobind Singh. Guru Gobind Singh Ji infused the spirit of both sainthood and solider in the minds and hearts of his followers to fight oppression in order to restore justice, peace, righteousness Dharma and to uplift the down-trodden people in this world. It is said that after the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur , the tenth Master declared that he would create such a Panth Sect which challenge the tyrant rulers in every walk of life to restore justice, equality and peace for all of mankind.

As a prophet, the Guru is unique. His teachings are very scientific and most suitable for all times. Unlike many other prophets he never called himself God or 'the only son of God. For himself he used the word 'Slave' or servant of God. Regard me as one of his slaves and have no doubt whatever about it. I am a servant of the Supreme Being; and have come to behold the wonderful drama of life.

Extracts from Guru Gobind Singh's writings ;. He is fearless, luminous and measureless in might. He is the king of kings, the Lord of the prophets. He is the sovereign of the universe, gods, men and demons. The woods and dales sing the indescribable. O Lord, none can tell Thy names. The wise count your blessings to coin your names. Returning to Patna in , he directed his family to return to the Punjab.

On the site of the house at Patna in which Gobind Rai was born and where he spent his early childhood now stands a sacred shrine, Sri Patna Sahib Gurdwara , Bihar. Gobind Rai was escorted to Anandpur then known as Chakk Nanaki on the foothills of the Sivaliks where he reached in March and where his early education included reading and writing of Punjabi, Braj, Sanskrit and Persian. He was barely nine years of age when a sudden turn came in his life as well as in the life of tile community he was destined to lead. As the Guru sat reflecting what to do, young Gobind Rai, arriving there in company with his playmates, asked why he looked so preoccupied.

The father, as records Kuir Singh in his Gurbilas Patshahi 10, replied, "Grave are the burdens the earth bears. She will be redeemed only if a truly worthy person comes forward to lay down his head. Distress will then be expunged and happiness ushered in. Guru Tegh Bahadur soon afterwards proceeded to the imperial capital, Delhi, and courted death in November In the midst of his engagement with the concerns of the community, he gave attention to the mastery of physical skills and literary accomplishment. He had grown into a comely youth spare, lithe of limb and energetic.

He had a natural genius for poetic composition and his early years were assiduously given to this pursuit. The poem depicted the legendary contest between the gods and the demons as described in the Markandeya Purana. The choice of a warlike theme for this and a number of his later compositions such as the two Chandi Charitras, mostly in Braj, was made to infuse martial spirit among his followers to prepare them to stand up against injustice and tyranny. For the first 20 years or so of his life, Guru Gobind Singh lived peacefully at Anandpur practicing arms and exercises to complete his training as a soldier.

He also studied Persian and Sanskrit and engaged 52 poets to translate the Hindu epics. Stories of ancient heroes were translated into Punjabi in order to create the martial spirit among the Sikhs. He also established a Gurdwara at Paonta Sahib on the banks of the river Jamna. Much of Guru Gobind Singh's creative literary work was done at Paonta he had founded on the banks of the River Yamuna and to which site he had temporarily shifted in April Poetry as such was, however, not his aim.

For him it was a means of revealing the divine principle and concretizing a personal vision of the Supreme Being that had been vouchsafed to him. Through his poetry he preached love and equality and a strictly ethical and moral code of conduct. He preached the worship of the One Supreme Being, deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances.

The glorification of the sword itself which he eulogized as Bhagauti was to secure fulfilment of God's justice. The sword was never meant as a symbol of aggression, and it was never to be used for self-aggrandizement. It was the emblem of manliness and self-respect and was to be used only in self-defence, as a last resort. During his stay at Paonta, Guru Gobind Singh availed himself of his spare time to practice different forms of manly exercises, such as riding, swimming and archery.

His increasing influence among the people and the martial exercises of his men excited the jealousy of the neighbouring Rajput hill rulers who led by Raja Fateh Chand of Garhwal collected a host to attack him. But they were worsted in an action at Bhangam, about 10 km northeast of Paonta, in September The Guru and his Sikhs were involved in a battle with a Mughal commander, Alif Khan, at Nadaur on the left bank of the Beas, about 30 km southeast of Kangra, in March Describing the battle in stirring verse in Bachitra Natak, he said that Alif Khan fled in utter disarray "without being able to give any attention to his cam..

Following the appointment in of the liberal Prince Muazzam later Emperor Bahadur Shah as viceroy of northwestern region including Punjab, there was however a brief respite from pressure from the ruling authority. In Sambat A. D , Guru Gobind Singh issued directions to Sikh sangats or communities in different parts not to acknowledge masands, the local ministers, against whom he had heard complaints.

The Guru admonished hill Rajas including Raja Bhim Chand for giving their daughters to the Moghuls as tribute for holding their positions. His efforts at winning their support against Aurangzeb bore no fruit. On the contrary, the hill Rajas conspired with the Moghul armies o put down the power of Guru Gobind singh. Hey however faced defeat several times at the hands of the comparatively small Sikh Army. The Masands The Guru received various complaints against the priests, masands who robbed the poor Sikhs and misappropriated the collections.

Guru Sahib abolished this order and severly punished the miscreants. Hereafter, the faithful were to bring their offerings direct of the Guru at the time of the annual Vaisakhi fair The Guru wanted to create a strong self-respecting community. He inspired the Sikhs with courage and heroism and a life of simplicity and hard work. He started an arms factory at Anandpur in order to manufacture swords and lances needed for his soldiers.

Once when the Brahims insisted that he should offer worship to goddess Durga in order to seal victory, he agreed and kept up the farce till nothing came out of it. Sikhs, he instructed, should come to Anandpur straight without any intermediaries. The Guru thus established direct relationship with his Sikhs. The institution of the Khalsa was given concrete form on 30 March when Sikhs had gathered at Anandpur in large numbers for the annual festival of Baisakhi.

An open air dewan was held in Kesgarh Sahib at Anandpur. The Guru drew his sword and in a thundering voice and said," I want one head, is there any one who can offer me? This most unusual call caused some terror in the gathering and the people were stunned. There was dead silence. The Guru made a second call. Nobody came forward. There was still more silence. On the third call there raised Daya Ram , a khatri of Lahore who said," O true king, my head is at your service. A blow and thud were heard. Then the Guru, with his sword dripping with blood, came out and said," I want another head, is there anyone who can offer?

My head is at thy disposal. Upon this some people in the assembly remarked that the Guru had lost all reason and went to his mother to complain. Mohkam Chand , a washerman of Dwarka west coast of India offered himself as a sacrifice. The Guru took him inside the tent and went through the same process. When he came out, he made a call for the fourth head. The Sikhs began to think that he was going to kill all of them. Some of them ran away and the others hung their heads down. Himmat Chand , a cook of Jagan Nath Puri, offered himself as a fourth sacrifice.

Then the Guru made a fifth and the last call for a fifth head. Sahib Chand , a barber of Bidar in central India , came forward and the Guru took him inside the tent. The last time he stayed longer in the tent. People began to breathe with relief. The Guru clad them in splendid garments. They offered their heads to the Guru, and the Guru had now given them himself and his glory. When they were brought outside, they were in the most radiant form. There were exclamations of wonder and the sighs of regret on all sides. Now people were sorry for not offering their heads.

Since the time of Guru Nanak, Charan Pauhal had been customary form of initiation. People were to drink the holy water which had been touched or washed by the Guru's toe or feet. The Guru proceeded to initiate them to his new order Khande di Pauhal by asking five faithful Sikhs to stand up. He put pure water into an iron vessel or Bowl Batta of Sarbloh and stirred it with a Khanda two edged small sword. Sugar crystals called 'Patasas' which incidently the Guru's wife, Mata Sahib Kaur, had brought at that moment, were mixed in the water.

The Guru then stood up with the sacred Amrit nectar prepared in the iron bowl. Each of the five faithful, by turn, each kneeling upon his left knee, looked up to the Master to receive the divine amrit. He gave five palmfuls of Amrit to each of them to drink and sprinkled it five times in the eyes, asking them to repeat aloud with each sprinkle, "Waheguru Ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh. In this way Amrit was administered to the five faithfuls from the same bowl.

After that he asked them to sip Amrit from the same bowl to signify their initiation into the casteless fraternity of the Khalsa. Kes - unshorn hair. This represents the natural appearance of sainthood. This is the first token of Sikh faith. Not to commit adultery- 'Par nari ki sej, bhul supne hun na jayo' never enjoy, even in dream, the bed of a woman other than your own wife A supplementary ordinance was issued that any one who did not observe any of the four directives, must be re- baptized, pay a fine, and promise not to offend any more; or he must be excommunicated from the Khalsa.

They must rise at dawn, bathe, meditate on Gurmantar-'Waheguru', Moolmantar- the preamble of Japji, and recite five banis- Japji, Jap Sahib and Swayas in the morning; Rehras in the evening; and Kirtan Sohela at bed time at night. They must not worship idols, cemeteries, or cremation grounds, and must believe only in One Immortal God. The Guru further spelled out that they should practice arms, and never show their backs to the foe in the battle field.

They should always be ready to help the poor and protect those who sought their protection. They were to consider their previous castes erased, and deem themselves all brothers of one family. Sikhs were to intermarry among themselves. After the Guru had administered Amrit to his Five Beloved Ones, he stood up in supplication and with folded hands, begged them to baptize him in the same way as he had baptized them.

He himself became their disciple Wonderful is Guru Gobind Singh , himself the Master and himself the disciple. The Five Beloved Ones were astonished at such a proposal, and represented their own unworthiness, and the greatness of the Guru, whom they deemed God's Vicar upon earth. They asked him why he made such a request and why he stood in a supplicant posture before them. He replied," I am the son of the Immortal God.

It is by His order I have been born and have established this form of baptism. The Khalsa is the Guru and the Guru is the Khalsa. There is no difference between you and me. Wherefore administer the baptismal nectar to me without any hesitation. About 80, men and women were baptized within a few days at Anandpur.

Sikh Guru's are:

He created a type of superman, a universal man of God, casteless and country less. The Guru regarded himself as the servant of the Khalsa. He said, "To serve them pleases me the most; no other service is so dear to my soul. These developments alarmed the caste ridden Rajput chiefs of the Sivalik hills. They rallied under the leadership of the Raja of Bilaspur, in whose territory lay Anandpur , to forcibly evict Guru Gobind Singh from his hilly citadel. Their repeated expeditions during however proved abortive.

They at last petitioned Emperor Aurangzeb for help. In concert with contingents sent under imperial orders by the governor of Lahore and those of the faujdar of Sirhind, they marched upon Anandpur and laid a siege to the fort in May Over the months, the Guru and his Sikhs firmly withstood their successive assau.

While the besieged Sikhs were reduced to desperate straits, the besiegers governor of Lahore too were exhausted at the courage of the Sikhs. At this stage the besiegers offered, on Oath promise of the Quran, safe exit to the Sikhs if they quit Anandpur. At last, the town was evacuated during a night of December But as the Guru and his Sikhs came out, the hill monarchs and their Mughal allies set upon them in full fury.

In the ensuing confusion many Sikhs were killed and all of the Guru's baggage, including most of the precious manuscripts, was lost. The Guru himself was able to make his way to Chamkaur , 40 km southwest of Anandpur, with barely 40 Sikhs and his two elder sons. There the imperial army, following closely on his heels, caught up with him.

His two sons, Ajit Singh born. The five surviving Sikhs bade the Guru to save himself in order to reconsolidate the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh with three of his Sikhs escaped into the wilderness of the Malva, two of his Muslim devotees, Gani Khan and Nabi Khan, helping him at great personal risk.

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Guru Gobind Singh's two younger sons, Zorawar Singh born. Their grandmother died the same day. There he enlisted a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan, and also composed his famous letter, Zafarnamah or the Epistle of Victory, in Persian verse, addressed to Emperor Aurangzeb. The letter was a severe indictment of the Emperor and his commanders who had broken their oath. They attacked Guru Gobind Singh once he was outside the safety of his fortification at Anandpur.

From Dina, Guru Gobind Singh continued his westward march until, finding the host close upon his heels; he took position beside the water pool of Khidrana to make a last-ditch stand. The fighting on 29 December was hard and desperate. In spite of their overwhelming numbers, the Mughal troops failed to capture the Guru and had to retire in defeat. The major part in this battle was played by a group of 40 Sikhs who had deserted the Guru at Anandpur during the long siege, but who, scolded by their wives at home, had come back under the leadership of a brave and devoted woman, Mai Bhago, to redeem themselves.

They had fallen fighting desperately to check the enemy's advance towards the Guru's position. The Guru blessed the 40 dead as 40 mukte, i. The site is now marked by a sacred shrine and tank and the town which has grown around them is called Muktsar, the Pool of Liberations. During his stay there of over nine months, a number of Sikhs rejoined him.

From the number of scholars who had rallied round Guru Gobind Singh and from the literary activity initiated, the place came to be known as the Guru's Kashi or seat of learning like Varanasi A city of northeast-central India. He forthwith invited him for a meeting. According to history, the Emperor had a letter written to the deputy governor of Lahore, Munim Khan, to conciliate the Guru and make the required arrangements for his journey to the Deccan.

Guru Gobind Singh had, however, already left for the South on 30 October He was in the neighborhood of Baghor, in Rajasthan, when the news arrived of the death of the Emperor at Ahmadnagar on 20 February The Guru there upon decided to return to the Punjab, via Shahjahanabad Delhi. That was the time when the sons of the deceased Emperor were preparing to contest succession. Guru Gobind Singh despatched for the help of the eldest claimant, the liberal Prince Muazzam, a token contingent of Sikhs which took part in the battle of Jajau 8 June , decisively won by the Prince who ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah.

Emperor Bahadur Shah had at this time to move against the Kachhvaha Rajputs of Amber Jaipur and then to the Deccan where his youngest brother, Kam Baksh, had raised the standard of revolt. The Guru accompanied him and, as history says, he addressed assemblies of people on the way preaching the word of Guru Nanak. Here he met a Bairagi a person who withdraws from the world , Madho Das, whom he blessed into a Sikh with the vows of the Khalsa, renaming him Gurbakhsh Singh popular name Banda Singh. Guru Gobind Singh gave Banda Singh five arrows from his own quiver and an escort, including five of his chosen Sikhs, and directed him to go to the Punjab and carry on the campaign against the tyranny of the provincial overlords.

Their marching together to the South made him jealous, and he ordered two of his trusted men with murdering the Guru before his increasing friendship with the Emperor resulted in any harm to him. These two pathans Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg are the names given in the Guru Kian Sakhian pursued the Guru secretly and overtook him at Nanded, where, according to Sri Gur Sobha by Senapati, a contemporary writer, one of them stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart as he lay one evening in his chamber resting after the Rahras prayer. Before he could deal another blow, Guru Gobind Singh struck him down with his sabre, while his fleeing companion fell under the swords of Sikhs who had rushed in on hearing the noise.

As the news reached Bahadar Shah's camp, he sent expert surgeons, to attend on the Guru. The Guru's wound was immediately stitched by the Emperor's European surgeon and within a few days it appeared to have been healed. Soon after when the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow, the imperfectly healed wound burst opened and caused profuse bleeding.

It was now clear to him that the call of the Father from Heaven had come and he, therefore, gave his last and enduring message of his mission to the assembly of the Khalsa. Obey the Granth Sahib. It is the visible body of the Gurus. And let him who desires to meet me, search me in the hymns.

All the Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as embodiment of the Gurus. Those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The Khalsa shall rule, and its opponents will be no more, Those separated will unite and all the devotees shall be saved. He, in grateful acknowledgement of the spiritual benefactions of the founder of his religion, uttered a Persian distich, the translation of which is:.

These lines were impressed on a seal made by the Sikhs after the Guru left for his heavenly abode, and were adopted by Ranjit Singh for his coinage after he had assumed the title of Maharaja in the Punjab. He then left for his heavenly abode. The Sikhs made preparations for his final rites as he had instructed them, the Sohila was chanted and Parsahd sacred food was distributed. While all were mourning the loss, a Sikh arrived and said," You suppose that the Guru is dead.

I met him this very morning riding his bay horse. After bowing to him, I asked where he was going. He smiled and replied that he was going to the forest. He who treasures even a grain of the Lord's love in his heart, is the blessed one and the Guru reveals himself to such a devotee in mysterious ways. As the grease adheres to the potshards, so to do the Gurus' hymns to the hearts of his Sikhs. At the hour of death the Gurus' instruction shall assuredly bear fruit. Whether understood or not, it has within it the seed of salvation. Perfume still clings to a broken vase.

And even though he may not fully understand them, God will undoubtedly assist him. He was in such a state of abstraction that he became quite unconscious. He grew as absorbed in the sight of the Guru as a drop of rain in the ocean. At mid-day, when dinner was announced, the Guru made no response. When the announcement was repeated an hour later, he still remained silent. A longer interval later, the call was again made for the third time and cook asked permission to serve the food, but again the Guru did not speak. Several Sikhs gathered together and were about to make a representation to the Guru, when he finally spoke.

Bhai Gonda is in Kabul. He is in thought, word, and deed, a saint of the Guru. He today clasped my feet. How can I take them away from him? How can I go take my dinner until he lets go? I am therefore waiting until the conclusion of his meditation and obeisance.

Dara Shikoh was the heir-apparent, and was very dear to his father. Aurangzeb was very cunning, clever and ambitious, and was fixated on succeeding to the throne. Astrologers were sent for, pirs and fakirs were called, all known charms, spells and incantations were tried but to no avail. They were of the opinion that if two ounces of chebulic myrobalan scientific name: termininalia chebula ; known in Ayurvedic medicine as Aralu , credited with having laxative and stomachic properties and a clove weighing one masha were administered, his health could be restored.

The Emperor humbled himself before the Guru and sent a letter. The Guru was pleased that the Emperor had such confidence in him as to write such a friendly letter, and consented to give the required medicines. The axe cuts the sandal tree, yet the sandal perfumes the axe. The Guru ought, therefore, to return good for evil. The ingredients were weighed and it was explained that these medicines would cause the hardest substance taken to be digested. To these ingredients, the Guru added a pearl which was to be ground and used as a subsidiary remedy.

The Emperor was naturally very pleased and forgot all his enemity with the Guru, and vowed that he would never again cause him annoyance. His medicine was administered and effected a speedy and complete cure. After the death of Shah Jahan, the attitude of the state headed by Aurangzeb towards the non-muslims, turned hostile. Emperor Aurangzeb made an excuse for the help rendered to prince Dara Shakoh by Guru Sahib during the war of succession and framed false charges against Guru Sahib who was summoned to Delhi.

He tried to clarify some mis-understandings regarding Guru Ghar and Sikh faith, created by Dhirmals and Minas. Yet another trap, which he could not escape, was to clarify the meaning of the verse "The Ashes of the Mohammadan fall into the potter's clot, it is moulded into pots and bricks, and they cry out as they burn". Baba Ram Rai in order to please the emperor and gain his sympathy distorted Gurbani. When Guru Har Rai Ji was informed about this incident, he immediately excommunicated Ram Rai Ji from the Sikh Panth and never met him, through the later pleaded repeatedly for forgiveness.

Thus Guru Sahib established a strict property for the Sikhs against any alteration of original verse in Guru Granth Sahib and the basic conventions set up by Guru Nanak Sahib. It turns out that this was his granduncle Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. The following is a summary of the main highlights of Guru Ji short life:. This act inflamed Ram Rai Ji with jealousy and he complained to the emperor Aurangzeb against his father's decision.

The emperor replied in favour issuing orders through Raja Jai Singh to the young Guru to appear before him. At first the Guru was not willing, but at the repeated requests of his followers and Raja Jai Singh, he agreed to go to Delhi. At this occasion, a large number of devotees from every walk of life came to bid him farewell. They followed the Guru Sahib up to village Panjokhara near Ambala. From this place the Guru advised his followers to return to their respective homes. Then Guru Sahib, along with a few of his family members proceeded towards Delhi.

But before leaving this place Guru Harkrishan Sahib showed the great powers which were bestowed upon him by the Almighty God. Then Guru Sahib called a water-carrier named Chhaju Ram, and with the Guru's grace, this unlettered man was able to expound the philosophy of the Gita. When Pandit Lal Chand listened the scholarly answer from Chhaju, he bent his head in shame and besought the forgiveness of Guru Sahib.

Guru Sahib was lodged in the palace of Raja Jai Singh. The people from all walks of life flocked the palace to have a glimpse Darshan of Guru Harkrishan Sahib. Some chronicles mention that prince Muzzam also paid a visit. In order to test the Guru's intelligence, of which everyone spoke very highly, Raja Jai Singh requested the Guru Sahib to identify the real queen out of the equally and well dressed ladies surrounding Guru Sahib.

The Guru at once went to a lady dressed as a maidservant and sat in her lap. This lady was the real queen. There are also many different stories we find in some other Sikh accounts relating to Guru Sahib's mental ability. Within a short span of time Guru Harkrishan Sahib through his fraternization with the common masses gained more and more adherents in the capital.

At the time, a severe epidemic of cholera and smallpox broke out in Delhi. The young Guru began to attend the sufferers irrespective of cast and creed. Particularly, the local Muslim population was much impressed with the purely humanitarian deeds of the Guru Sahib and nicknamed him Bala Pir child prophet.

Even Aurangzeb did not try to disturb Guru Harkrishan Sahib sensing the tone of the situation but on the other hand never dismissed the claim of Ram Rai also. While serving the suffering people from the epidemic day and night, Guru Sahib himself was seized with high fever. The severe attack of smallpox confined him to bed for several days. When his condition became serious, he called his mother and told her that his end was drawing near. When asked to name his successor, he merely exclaimed 'Baba Bakala'.

These words were only meant for the future Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib, who was residing at village Bakala near river Beas in Punjab province. In the last moment Guru Harkrishan Sahib wished that nobody should mourn him after his death and instructed to sing the hyms of Gurbani. Guru Har Rai passed away on October 6, Guru Har Krishan consoled the disciples. He asked them not to give way to despair but abide by the Will of the Almighty.

All should sing God's praises and not weep or lament. As days went by, the disciples began pouring in from far and near. They were delighted to have a sight of the Guru. He sat on the throne, a small figure, young in years, but mature in wisdom. Says Bhai Santokh Singh, "The early morning sun looks small in size, but its light is everywhere. So was Guru Har Krishan' s fame, without limit. They had their heart's desires fulfilled and their sins erased.

The Sikhs recognized him as the picture of Guru Nanak. Guru Har Krishan had a rare ability in explaining passages from the Holy Granth. He delighted the hearts of his disciples by his commentaries. He reminded them to cherish the One God alone, and asked them to discard passions and learn the virtues of patience, charity and love. Thus Guru Har Krishan carried on the teaching of the Gurus and preserved intact the legacy he had inherited from them. The Baisakhi day March 29 of brought to Kiratpur vast numbers of followers. The festival lasted.

In the sangat of Sialkot district was Pair Mall of Pasrur, along with his family. His son, Khem Karan, was a promising youth. Mata Bassi betrothed her granddaughter, Bibi Rup Kaur, to him. Nuptials were held on December 3, Emperor Aurangzeb was not pleased to hear about the growing fame of Guru Har Krishan. He sent for him to Delhi as he had sent for his father, Guru Har Rai. Guru Har Rai had not gone himself, but had sent his elder son, Ram Rai, to the emperor' s court. They said to him with clasped hands, "We are thy servants, Lord.

With thy knowledge of all the three worlds, thou knowest best. Along the way, he instructed the disciples who came to call on him. Stay here a day so that they may have the chance of seeing you, Master. In that village lived a pandit, Lal Chand by name, who was proud of his caste as well as of his learning. He came to see the Guru and spoke with derision: "It is said that you sit on the gaddi of Guru Nanak.

But what do you know of the old religious books'? Guru Har Krishan asked Dargah Mall to call him. As Chhajju Ram came, the Guru enquired if he would explain to the pandit the gist of the Bhagavadgita. The illiterate villager astonished everyone by his cogent commentary on the sacred book. Lal Chand's pride was overcome. Humbly he fell at the Guru's feet. Both he and Chhajju Ram became the Guru's disciples and travelled with him up to Kurukshetra. Lal Singh met with a hero's death fighting in the battle of Chamkaur on December 7, The house was a spacious one "designed to suit all the seasons of the year.

They came chanting the holy songs and brought offerings with them. As says the Mahima Prakash, the emperor had planned a trial. He had two larg. One of these displayed ornaments, clothes and toys. The other had in it a holy man's cloak and cowl. Both were presented to Guru Har Krishan. He rejected the tray containing ornaments and clothes, and accepted the one containing the cloak. The emperor was convinced of his holiness. He thought he would invite him again and see him perform a miracle. Guru Har Krishan guessed what the emperor had in his mind.

He told himself that he would not see his face again. He believed that no one should attempt a mirage and try to disturb the law of God. Guru Har Krishan knew how his father had punished Ram Rai, his elder brother, for showing feats in Aurangzib's court. The Rani had devised her own test. The Guru accepted the invitation. At the entrance to the inner apartments of the palace, he was received by the Raja's servants with due honour.

As he stepped inside, the ladies, in their costly jewels and clothes, bowed in reverencers He walked past them acknowledging their greetings. As he came near one dressed modestly in a maid's coarse homespun, he stopped and said, You are the Rani. Why should you have dressed yourself in a maid's suit? Suddenly one day Guru Har Krishan was taken ill with a fever.

The fever turned out to be the beginning of an attack of smallpox. The Guru's tender body was ravaged by the disease. The Guru's mother, Mata Sulakkhani, became very sad. You are the dispeller of the world' s sorrows and sufferings. Your very sight removes the ailments of others. Why do you lie sick now?

Both happiness and suffering are part of life. What is ordained must happen. This is what Guru Nanak taught. Whatever He does is His order. One must walk in the light of His command. The Sikhs wondered why the Guru suffered thus. They were in despair and wondered who would take the gaddi after him. It is everlasting and will command increasing honour. The Granth is the Lord of all. He who wants to see me, let him with faith and love see the Granth. So will he shed all his sins. He who would wish to speak with the Guru, let him read the Granth with devotion.

He who practises its teachings will obtain all the four padarathas, or cherished objects of human life. He who has faith gains all. He who is without faith acquires but little. None in this world liveth forever. The body is mortal. In the Granth abides the Guru' s spirit. Daily bow your head to it. So will you conquer your passions and attain liberation. Tears filled the Sikhs' eyes as they listened to what sounded like the last words of the Guru. Then mother Sulakkhani came forward. With tears in her eyes, she spoke, "How shall I live without thee, son? I was blessed when I came into this family married to the late Guru.

I was blessed when you were born. Now I am cast into a bottomless ocean of sorrow. Who would be my rescuer? How does a fish live separated from water? Eternal peace will be yours. Mother Sulakkhani's heart was awakened to the truth and she felt herself released from her worldly chains. Guru Har Krishan was in a critical state. Yet he did not fail to carry out his important responsibility before he left the mortal world. In his last moments, he was able to nominate his successor. He asked for the ceremonial marks of succession to be fetched. But all he could say was "Baba Bakale.

The reference was unmistakably to Tegh Bahadur. Guru Har Krishan passed away on March 30, The next day, they set out for Bakala to inform Guru Tegh Bahadur. While in Delhi, he had met Guru Har Krishan and now he received the news of his passing away. He consoled the Sikhs and taught them to abide by God's Will. According to an entry in the Bhatt Vahi Talauda Parganah Jind, the ashes were taken from Delhi to Kiratpur where they were mixed with the waters of the Sutlej. The original entry translated as. The ashes were immersed in the River Sutlej.

Karahprasad was distributed. The reason why Ram Rai was superseded has already been given in the last chapter. Guru Har Kishen was appointed Guru when he was five years and three months old. Guru Harkrishan ascended the ecclesiastical throne at the age of 5 years and 8 months. He was blessed with the divine spirit. When Guru Ji came to Delhi, the city was suffering of an epidemic. Guru Ji went all over the city and He gave solace to those in anguish. His Divine presence and Divine Look would rid the patients of their maladies.

The masand Gurdas who attended on Ram Rai comforted him," There is no need to be sad. Thou hast many disciples in this part of the country. Even the Emperor himself holdeth thee in honor. His masands went in all directions to announce his succession as Guru but the Sikhs who knew Guru's succession, refused to accept Ram Rai as their Guru.

At that time Ram Rai decided to lay his case before the Emperor. Thus he addressed Aurangzeb,"Sir, my father has appointed my younger brother as successor to him, and now he has taken possession of his throne, his property and offerings. This misfortune has befallen me on account of my obedience to your Majesty. My father was opposed to you on that account, and at his death he ordered my younger brother never to be reconciled to you, and never to look upon your face. Now I pray thee to summon him to Delhi and order him to exhibit miracles as I have done.

This situation provided the Emperor with a good opportunity to realize his own religious mission. Aurangzeb wanted to convert all Hindus to Islam but he apprehended failure in Punjab because the people greatly revered the Guru there. Aurangzeb having contrived this wicked plan, called Raja Jai Singh of Amber Japer and ordered him to summon Guru Har Kishen and said," I wish to see him, be careful that he Guru be treated with all respect on his journey. When Guru Harkrishan Sahib came to Delhi, tyhe city was then in the grip of an epidemic.

Guru Ji went all over the city even in narrow lanes and bylanes. He gave succour to all in anguish without any discrimination whatsoever. His very presence and the Divine Look would rid the patients of their sufferings. Many writers have shown their disbelief over the fact that Guru Har Kishen being a child, possessed high attainments and he taught with all the confidence to those who asked him about truth.

Intelligentsia cannot understand the sanctity of Guruship as they attribute every happening to age, intelligence and experience of a person. It should be noted here that Guru Har Kishen because of his divine prerogatives, had the spiritual powers at the age of five. His spiritual attainments came with his status of Guruship.

As has been explained before, in Sikh Holy Scripture Guru means Jot or Divine Light, once the Guruship is installed, then a person's age, intelligence or experience has no value. It is then the Divine Light that works in that person. The power of Divine Light is beyond the reach of human intelligence. The intelligentsia cannot perceive or apprehend the power of Divine Light through the media of their technical knowledge. Our so called technical knowledge or the intelligence, in reality is 'I-am-ness' or the veil of ego.

God is everywhere and within us too, but this veil of ego separates us from Him and it hides the truth from us. According to Gurmat, human being as bride and God as bridegroom, live together but the veil of ego separates them. When by the grace of the perfect Guru, this veil of ego is broken, the bride meets the Beloved, God:. Bride and the Bridegroom live together, but the screen of ego hangs in between; When the perfect Guru breaks the veil of ego, O Nanak, we meet our Beloved, God.

It is only the Guru's grace that opens up our inner eyes with which we can perceive the Incomprehensible and enter the stage of Eternal Bliss.

GURMAT VICHAAR: Gems for Life from Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS)

Man wondereth at the wonders upon wonders of Creation But it is only he who knoweth God, who obtaineth bliss. There is a famous incident from his early age. The Pundit asked him to recite Salokas from the Geeta since his name was similar to that of Lord Krishna. Guru Ji invited a mute person called Chhajju Mehra and placed his stick on his head.

He immediately started interpreting salokas from the Geeta. Everybody around was dumbstruck. Lal Chand's arrogance too was shattered and he asked for Guru Ji's forgiveness. To reach that stage, a person first must seek Guru's grace. In order to do that, one must abandon the sense of egoism and the pride of technical knowledge; and then submit and surrender unconditionally before the Guru and beg for his grace. The answer to the question as to how the Guru at the age of five could possess attainments of such a high magnitude lies not in the reasoning of egoistic mind but in the spiritual vision.

The answer to the spiritual power of the young Guru lies in the understanding that the Guru though human in body, is Divine in Spirit. Egoistic minds of the so called scholars prohibit them from understanding the Divinity of the Guru. As long as human mind remains under the intoxication of egoism, the cycle of arguments of. The egoistic mind will then continue to wonder how a five years old Guru could perform those supernatural acts. Raja Jai Singh had previously heard the Guru's praises and was, therefore, pleased at the prospect of making his acquaintance and of listening to his instruction.

He sent his emissary to Kiratpur to request the Guru to come to Delhi. The Guru refused the invitation, for he had been forbidden by his father not to see the Emperor. The Guru may act as he pleases regarding an interview with the Emperor. The Guru set out from Kiratpur. On his way he waited for some Sikhs who had come to Kiratpur after his departure.

Among them were the maimed and the leprous, all of whom he cured by the imposition of his hands. At Panjokhra, a village near Ambala, came a proud learned Brahman, who without even saluting the Guru, sat down in is presence. Translate the Gita for me. Chhaju was serving water in the kitchen of the Guru where he had encamped. The Guru asked the Brahman whether he should translate Gita himself or he should get it done from Chhaju. The Brahman thought, Chhaju who could not even talk, how could he translate it? So he replied after a little pause, that Chhaju should do it. The Guru was always carrying a stick with him.

He called Chhaju, put his stick on his head and asked him to answer the Brahman's questions. To the utter amazement of the Brahman, Chhaju explained in detail each and every verse that the Brahman asked. Upon this the Brahman fell on the lotus feet of the Guru and apologized for his indiscreet behavior. He requested the Guru to stay at his palace. Thousands of people of Delhi came to have 'darshan' holy sight of the Guru. The sick were healed and those in distress were comforted at the very sight of the holy Master. Now Gurdwara Bangla Sahib stands there. At that time cholera was raging in the area.

Guru Ji went through the city, healing the sick. The afflicted were very happy to receive holy water from him. This water has divine qualities and even now people utilise this water for their uncureable illnesses During his stay he propogated Sikhism. This was the time of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The Emperor sent presents at the arrival of the Guru and expressed a wish to see him but the invitation as refused. The Guru said," My elder brother, Ram Rai, is with the Emperor and he will transact all political affairs with His Majesty, and I better not meddle with him.

My mission is to preach the true Name. Ram Rai bears enmity with me on account of Guruship, and if the Emperor shows any favor towards me , Ram Rai will become more hostile and grave dissensions in the family may better be avoided. For this and other reasons my father forbade me to meet the Emperor.

The next day the Emperor's son, prince Muazzam paid a visit and conveyed his father's desire to see the Guru. The Guru emphasized that he had already given the reason not to see the Emperor. If the Emperor desired any religious instructions, he would give it to the prince. If the Emperor understood the religious instructions and acted upon them,. The prince asked for the instructions and the Guru dictated the following Sabad of Guru Nanak:. What dresses, What a pleasant couch for billing and cooing, What an army, what mace-bearers and servants, and what palaces to dwell in?

Nanak, except the true Name all things are perishable. On the instruction of Emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Jai Singh agreed to test the Guru whether he possessed any superhuman power. His head queen dressed like a maid servant and sat among other maid servants and queens. The Guru was requested to identify the head queen Rani which he immediately did. Upon this Raja Jai Singh and his queens acknowledged the Guru's spiritual power. Cholera and small-pox were raging fiercely in Delhi at that time. The Guru ordered to spare all the offerings to reduce the suffering of the poor. The food, medicine and clothes were distributed among the poor and the sick.

He won many followers in this way. When Guru Ji realised that his time has come for ascenscion, he took a coconut and 5 paise and uttered these words " Baba Basehe je Gram Bakaley" - meaning that the next Guru his Grandfather- Guru Teg Bahadur resides in the village of Bakala - who will take over the Guru Ship after him.. Shortly after the above occurrence, the Guru was seized with high fever which was followed by small-pox. His mother sat by him and pleaded," My son, why art thou intent on thy death? Thou hast only lately been seated on the Guru's throne, thou art still a child, and it is too soon for thee to depart.

My safety is in His Will. He is the Reaper of His crop; it is His pleasure, and sometimes He reaps it while it is still green, half-green and sometimes when it is ripe. The Creator will do what is best. The Guru was ill for several days. He knew his end had arrived and called for five paise and a coconut. He waved his hand three times in the air in token of circumambulating his successor and said," Baba Bakale," which meant that his successor would be found at village of Bakala.

He then breathed his last on 30th of March, His body was cremated on the bank of river Jamna where now stands the Gurdwara Bala Sahib. FNIt is said that small-pox was so rampant in Delhi that the Guru out of human compassion took the small-pox to himself and absolved the inhabitants of Delhi of it. Raja Jai Singh got a tank excavated. The Guru dipped his feet in the water of the tank and after that whosoever took bath with that water, was cured from small-pox.

The following is a summary of the main highlights of Guruji's life:. Guru Gobind Singh moulded the Sikh Religion into its present form today with the formation of the Khalsa. He was undoubtedly a great man. The tenth Guru teacher of the Sikh faith, was born Gobind Rai. It may not be out of context to say here that throughout the chronicles of human history, there was no other individual who could be of more inspiring personality than Guru Gobind Singh. Guru Gobind Singh Ji infused the spirit of both sainthood and solider in the minds and hearts of his followers to fight oppression in order to restore justice, peace, righteousness Dharma and to uplift the down-trodden people in this world.

It is said that after the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur , the tenth Master declared that he would create such a Panth Sect which challenge the tyrant rulers in every walk of life to restore justice, equality and peace for all of mankind. As a prophet, the Guru is unique. His teachings are very scientific and most suitable for all times. Unlike many other prophets he never called himself God or 'the only son of God.

For himself he used the word 'Slave' or servant of God. Regard me as one of his slaves and have no doubt whatever about it. I am a servant of the Supreme Being; and have come to behold the wonderful drama of life. Extracts from Guru Gobind Singh's writings ;. He is fearless, luminous and measureless in might. He is the king of kings, the Lord of the prophets. He is the sovereign of the universe, gods, men and demons. The woods and dales sing the indescribable. O Lord, none can tell Thy names.

The wise count your blessings to coin your names. Returning to Patna in , he directed his family to return to the Punjab. On the site of the house at Patna in which Gobind Rai was born and where he spent his early childhood now stands a sacred shrine, Sri Patna Sahib Gurdwara , Bihar. Gobind Rai was escorted to Anandpur then known as Chakk Nanaki on the foothills of the Sivaliks where he reached in March and where his early education included reading and writing of Punjabi, Braj, Sanskrit and Persian.

He was barely nine years of age when a sudden turn came in his life as well as in the life of tile community he was destined to lead. As the Guru sat reflecting what to do, young Gobind Rai, arriving there in company with his playmates, asked why he looked so preoccupied. The father, as records Kuir Singh in his Gurbilas Patshahi 10, replied, "Grave are the burdens the earth bears. She will be redeemed only if a truly worthy person comes forward to lay down his head. Distress will then be expunged and happiness ushered in.

Guru Tegh Bahadur soon afterwards proceeded to the imperial capital, Delhi, and courted death in November In the midst of his engagement with the concerns of the community, he gave attention to the mastery of physical skills and literary accomplishment. He had grown into a comely youth spare, lithe of limb and energetic. He had a natural genius for poetic composition and his early years were assiduously given to this pursuit. The poem depicted the legendary contest between the gods and the demons as described in the Markandeya Purana.

The choice of a warlike theme for this and a number of his later compositions such as the two Chandi Charitras, mostly in Braj, was made to infuse martial spirit among his followers to prepare them to stand up against injustice and tyranny. For the first 20 years or so of his life, Guru Gobind Singh lived peacefully at Anandpur practicing arms and exercises to complete his training as a soldier. He also studied Persian and Sanskrit and engaged 52 poets to translate the Hindu epics.

Stories of ancient heroes were translated into Punjabi in order to create the martial spirit among the Sikhs. He also established a Gurdwara at Paonta Sahib on the banks of the river Jamna. Much of Guru Gobind Singh's creative literary work was done at Paonta he had founded on the banks of the River Yamuna and to which site he had temporarily shifted in April Poetry as such was, however, not his aim. For him it was a means of revealing the divine principle and concretizing a personal vision of the Supreme Being that had been vouchsafed to him. Through his poetry he preached love and equality and a strictly ethical and moral code of conduct.

He preached the worship of the One Supreme Being, deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances. The glorification of the sword itself which he eulogized as Bhagauti was to secure fulfilment of God's justice. The sword was never meant as a symbol of aggression, and it was never to be used for self-aggrandizement. It was the emblem of manliness and self-respect and was to be used only in self-defence, as a last resort. During his stay at Paonta, Guru Gobind Singh availed himself of his spare time to practice different forms of manly exercises, such as riding, swimming and archery.

His increasing influence among the people and the martial exercises of his men excited the jealousy of the neighbouring Rajput hill rulers who led by Raja Fateh Chand of Garhwal collected a host to attack him. But they were worsted in an action at Bhangam, about 10 km northeast of Paonta, in September The Guru and his Sikhs were involved in a battle with a Mughal commander, Alif Khan, at Nadaur on the left bank of the Beas, about 30 km southeast of Kangra, in March Describing the battle in stirring verse in Bachitra Natak, he said that Alif Khan fled in utter disarray "without being able to give any attention to his cam..

Following the appointment in of the liberal Prince Muazzam later Emperor Bahadur Shah as viceroy of northwestern region including Punjab, there was however a brief respite from pressure from the ruling authority. In Sambat A. D , Guru Gobind Singh issued directions to Sikh sangats or communities in different parts not to acknowledge masands, the local ministers, against whom he had heard complaints. The Guru admonished hill Rajas including Raja Bhim Chand for giving their daughters to the Moghuls as tribute for holding their positions.

His efforts at winning their support against Aurangzeb bore no fruit. On the contrary, the hill Rajas conspired with the Moghul armies o put down the power of Guru Gobind singh. Hey however faced defeat several times at the hands of the comparatively small Sikh Army.

The Masands The Guru received various complaints against the priests, masands who robbed the poor Sikhs and misappropriated the collections. Guru Sahib abolished this order and severly punished the miscreants. Hereafter, the faithful were to bring their offerings direct of the Guru at the time of the annual Vaisakhi fair The Guru wanted to create a strong self-respecting community. He inspired the Sikhs with courage and heroism and a life of simplicity and hard work.

He started an arms factory at Anandpur in order to manufacture swords and lances needed for his soldiers. Once when the Brahims insisted that he should offer worship to goddess Durga in order to seal victory, he agreed and kept up the farce till nothing came out of it. Sikhs, he instructed, should come to Anandpur straight without any intermediaries. The Guru thus established direct relationship with his Sikhs. The institution of the Khalsa was given concrete form on 30 March when Sikhs had gathered at Anandpur in large numbers for the annual festival of Baisakhi.

An open air dewan was held in Kesgarh Sahib at Anandpur. The Guru drew his sword and in a thundering voice and said," I want one head, is there any one who can offer me? This most unusual call caused some terror in the gathering and the people were stunned. There was dead silence. The Guru made a second call. Nobody came forward. There was still more silence. On the third call there raised Daya Ram , a khatri of Lahore who said," O true king, my head is at your service. A blow and thud were heard. Then the Guru, with his sword dripping with blood, came out and said," I want another head, is there anyone who can offer?

My head is at thy disposal. Upon this some people in the assembly remarked that the Guru had lost all reason and went to his mother to complain. Mohkam Chand , a washerman of Dwarka west coast of India offered himself as a sacrifice. The Guru took him inside the tent and went through the same process. When he came out, he made a call for the fourth head. The Sikhs began to think that he was going to kill all of them.

Some of them ran away and the others hung their heads down. Himmat Chand , a cook of Jagan Nath Puri, offered himself as a fourth sacrifice. Then the Guru made a fifth and the last call for a fifth head. Sahib Chand , a barber of Bidar in central India , came forward and the Guru took him inside the tent. The last time he stayed longer in the tent. People began to breathe with relief. The Guru clad them in splendid garments. They offered their heads to the Guru, and the Guru had now given them himself and his glory. When they were brought outside, they were in the most radiant form.

There were exclamations of wonder and the sighs of regret on all sides. Now people were sorry for not offering their heads.


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  5. Since the time of Guru Nanak, Charan Pauhal had been customary form of initiation. People were to drink the holy water which had been touched or washed by the Guru's toe or feet. The Guru proceeded to initiate them to his new order Khande di Pauhal by asking five faithful Sikhs to stand up. He put pure water into an iron vessel or Bowl Batta of Sarbloh and stirred it with a Khanda two edged small sword. Sugar crystals called 'Patasas' which incidently the Guru's wife, Mata Sahib Kaur, had brought at that moment, were mixed in the water. The Guru then stood up with the sacred Amrit nectar prepared in the iron bowl.

    Each of the five faithful, by turn, each kneeling upon his left knee, looked up to the Master to receive the divine amrit. He gave five palmfuls of Amrit to each of them to drink and sprinkled it five times in the eyes, asking them to repeat aloud with each sprinkle, "Waheguru Ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh. In this way Amrit was administered to the five faithfuls from the same bowl. After that he asked them to sip Amrit from the same bowl to signify their initiation into the casteless fraternity of the Khalsa. Kes - unshorn hair.

    This represents the natural appearance of sainthood. This is the first token of Sikh faith. Not to commit adultery- 'Par nari ki sej, bhul supne hun na jayo' never enjoy, even in dream, the bed of a woman other than your own wife A supplementary ordinance was issued that any one who did not observe any of the four directives, must be re- baptized, pay a fine, and promise not to offend any more; or he must be excommunicated from the Khalsa.

    They must rise at dawn, bathe, meditate on Gurmantar-'Waheguru', Moolmantar- the preamble of Japji, and recite five banis- Japji, Jap Sahib and Swayas in the morning; Rehras in the evening; and Kirtan Sohela at bed time at night. They must not worship idols, cemeteries, or cremation grounds, and must believe only in One Immortal God. The Guru further spelled out that they should practice arms, and never show their backs to the foe in the battle field. They should always be ready to help the poor and protect those who sought their protection.

    They were to consider their previous castes erased, and deem themselves all brothers of one family. Sikhs were to intermarry among themselves. After the Guru had administered Amrit to his Five Beloved Ones, he stood up in supplication and with folded hands, begged them to baptize him in the same way as he had baptized them.

    He himself became their disciple Wonderful is Guru Gobind Singh , himself the Master and himself the disciple. The Five Beloved Ones were astonished at such a proposal, and represented their own unworthiness, and the greatness of the Guru, whom they deemed God's Vicar upon earth. They asked him why he made such a request and why he stood in a supplicant posture before them. He replied," I am the son of the Immortal God.

    It is by His order I have been born and have established this form of baptism. The Khalsa is the Guru and the Guru is the Khalsa. There is no difference between you and me. Wherefore administer the baptismal nectar to me without any hesitation. About 80, men and women were baptized within a few days at Anandpur. He created a type of superman, a universal man of God, casteless and country less. The Guru regarded himself as the servant of the Khalsa. He said, "To serve them pleases me the most; no other service is so dear to my soul.

    These developments alarmed the caste ridden Rajput chiefs of the Sivalik hills. They rallied under the leadership of the Raja of Bilaspur, in whose territory lay Anandpur , to forcibly evict Guru Gobind Singh from his hilly citadel. Their repeated expeditions during however proved abortive. They at last petitioned Emperor Aurangzeb for help. In concert with contingents sent under imperial orders by the governor of Lahore and those of the faujdar of Sirhind, they marched upon Anandpur and laid a siege to the fort in May Over the months, the Guru and his Sikhs firmly withstood their successive assau.

    While the besieged Sikhs were reduced to desperate straits, the besiegers governor of Lahore too were exhausted at the courage of the Sikhs. At this stage the besiegers offered, on Oath promise of the Quran, safe exit to the Sikhs if they quit Anandpur. At last, the town was evacuated during a night of December But as the Guru and his Sikhs came out, the hill monarchs and their Mughal allies set upon them in full fury.

    In the ensuing confusion many Sikhs were killed and all of the Guru's baggage, including most of the precious manuscripts, was lost. The Guru himself was able to make his way to Chamkaur , 40 km southwest of Anandpur, with barely 40 Sikhs and his two elder sons. There the imperial army, following closely on his heels, caught up with him. His two sons, Ajit Singh born. The five surviving Sikhs bade the Guru to save himself in order to reconsolidate the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh with three of his Sikhs escaped into the wilderness of the Malva, two of his Muslim devotees, Gani Khan and Nabi Khan, helping him at great personal risk.

    Guru Gobind Singh's two younger sons, Zorawar Singh born. Their grandmother died the same day. There he enlisted a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan, and also composed his famous letter, Zafarnamah or the Epistle of Victory, in Persian verse, addressed to Emperor Aurangzeb.

    The letter was a severe indictment of the Emperor and his commanders who had broken their oath. They attacked Guru Gobind Singh once he was outside the safety of his fortification at Anandpur. From Dina, Guru Gobind Singh continued his westward march until, finding the host close upon his heels; he took position beside the water pool of Khidrana to make a last-ditch stand.

    The fighting on 29 December was hard and desperate. In spite of their overwhelming numbers, the Mughal troops failed to capture the Guru and had to retire in defeat. The major part in this battle was played by a group of 40 Sikhs who had deserted the Guru at Anandpur during the long siege, but who, scolded by their wives at home, had come back under the leadership of a brave and devoted woman, Mai Bhago, to redeem themselves. They had fallen fighting desperately to check the enemy's advance towards the Guru's position. The Guru blessed the 40 dead as 40 mukte, i. The site is now marked by a sacred shrine and tank and the town which has grown around them is called Muktsar, the Pool of Liberations.

    During his stay there of over nine months, a number of Sikhs rejoined him. From the number of scholars who had rallied round Guru Gobind Singh and from the literary activity initiated, the place came to be known as the Guru's Kashi or seat of learning like Varanasi A city of northeast-central India.

    He forthwith invited him for a meeting. According to history, the Emperor had a letter written to the deputy governor of Lahore, Munim Khan, to conciliate the Guru and make the required arrangements for his journey to the Deccan. Guru Gobind Singh had, however, already left for the South on 30 October He was in the neighborhood of Baghor, in Rajasthan, when the news arrived of the death of the Emperor at Ahmadnagar on 20 February The Guru there upon decided to return to the Punjab, via Shahjahanabad Delhi.

    That was the time when the sons of the deceased Emperor were preparing to contest succession. Guru Gobind Singh despatched for the help of the eldest claimant, the liberal Prince Muazzam, a token contingent of Sikhs which took part in the battle of Jajau 8 June , decisively won by the Prince who ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. Emperor Bahadur Shah had at this time to move against the Kachhvaha Rajputs of Amber Jaipur and then to the Deccan where his youngest brother, Kam Baksh, had raised the standard of revolt.

    The Guru accompanied him and, as history says, he addressed assemblies of people on the way preaching the word of Guru Nanak. Here he met a Bairagi a person who withdraws from the world , Madho Das, whom he blessed into a Sikh with the vows of the Khalsa, renaming him Gurbakhsh Singh popular name Banda Singh.

    Guru Gobind Singh gave Banda Singh five arrows from his own quiver and an escort, including five of his chosen Sikhs, and directed him to go to the Punjab and carry on the campaign against the tyranny of the provincial overlords. Their marching together to the South made him jealous, and he ordered two of his trusted men with murdering the Guru before his increasing friendship with the Emperor resulted in any harm to him.

    These two pathans Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg are the names given in the Guru Kian Sakhian pursued the Guru secretly and overtook him at Nanded, where, according to Sri Gur Sobha by Senapati, a contemporary writer, one of them stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart as he lay one evening in his chamber resting after the Rahras prayer.

    Before he could deal another blow, Guru Gobind Singh struck him down with his sabre, while his fleeing companion fell under the swords of Sikhs who had rushed in on hearing the noise. As the news reached Bahadar Shah's camp, he sent expert surgeons, to attend on the Guru.

    The Guru's wound was immediately stitched by the Emperor's European surgeon and within a few days it appeared to have been healed. Soon after when the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow, the imperfectly healed wound burst opened and caused profuse bleeding. It was now clear to him that the call of the Father from Heaven had come and he, therefore, gave his last and enduring message of his mission to the assembly of the Khalsa.

    Obey the Granth Sahib. It is the visible body of the Gurus. And let him who desires to meet me, search me in the hymns. All the Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as embodiment of the Gurus. Those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The Khalsa shall rule, and its opponents will be no more, Those separated will unite and all the devotees shall be saved.

    He, in grateful acknowledgement of the spiritual benefactions of the founder of his religion, uttered a Persian distich, the translation of which is:. These lines were impressed on a seal made by the Sikhs after the Guru left for his heavenly abode, and were adopted by Ranjit Singh for his coinage after he had assumed the title of Maharaja in the Punjab. He then left for his heavenly abode. The Sikhs made preparations for his final rites as he had instructed them, the Sohila was chanted and Parsahd sacred food was distributed. While all were mourning the loss, a Sikh arrived and said," You suppose that the Guru is dead.

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    I met him this very morning riding his bay horse. After bowing to him, I asked where he was going. He smiled and replied that he was going to the forest. He who treasures even a grain of the Lord's love in his heart, is the blessed one and the Guru reveals himself to such a devotee in mysterious ways. Wherefore for such a Guru who had departed bodily to Heaven, there ought to be no mourning. Razak The provider and Rahim The merciful are also the names given to Him.

    Let no man in his error wrangle over differences in names. Worship the One God who is the Lord of all. Know that his form is one and He is the One light diffused in all. I shall always manifest myself in the Khalsa. The Khalsa is my body and soul; The Khalsa is the life of my life. The Khalsa is my perfect leader. The Khalsa is my brave friend. I say nothing untrue and to this; Guru Nanak, united with God, is my witness.

    It will be of no service to it. Why run about for the sake of wealth? You cannot escape from death. Son, Wife, friends, disciples, companions none of those will bear witness for thee. Think, O think, you thoughtless fool, you shall have in the end to depart alone. The holy book is placed on a dominant platform and covered in very beautiful and attractive coloured fine cloth. The platform is always covered by a canopy, which is also decorated in expensive and very attractive coloured materials. The text used is a script called Gurmukhi literally "From the Guru's mouth" , which is considered a modern development of the ancient language called Sanskrit.

    Guru Nanak brought the Word of God to manifestation upon the Earth. Through his Hymns and Prayers, he inspired and uplifted humankind to live a life of truth, righteousness and spirituality. These enlightening words were sung by his companions, Bala and Mardana, and by the Sangats which grew up around Guru Nanak.