According to the court records, the men were sentenced to be hung, drawn and quartered in their local market square. Francis Elizabeth Dolan , the author of Women on Scaffolds , has argued that women were never treated in this way. Understood as men's property, women's bodies played important roles in defining and securing masculine power The executioner of someone being hung, drawn and quartered would appear as a brutal rapist.
All women during the Tudor period who had been convicted of high treason were beheaded in private. However, Henry was aware that a large number of women had taken part in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Women such as Lady Anne Hussey and Lady Katherine Rhys had played a prominent role in this demonstration against Henry's religious policies. However, they were members of the nobility who could not be punished in this way.
Margaret Cheyney did not have any titles and so it was therefore acceptable to have her executed. But she was not guilty of being one of its leaders. Nor did she take part in any of the demonstrations. She had an excellent alibi because in October she was just about to give birth to her son.
The reason we know so much about Margaret Cheyney is that her story was recorded by two sisters, Madeleine Dodds and Ruth Dodds , in their comprehensive book on the subject, The Pilgrimage of Grace They discovered that although Tudor documents referred to her as Margaret Cheyney, her name at the time of her execution was Lady Margaret Bulmer, the wife of Sir John Bulmer. Margaret had been Bulmer's mistress but after the death of his wife they were married in People joined what became known as the Pilgrimage of Grace for a variety of different reasons.
Unpopular taxes, local and regional grievances, poor harvests as well as the attack on the monasteries and the Reformation legislation all contributed to the creation of a tense atmosphere in many parts of the country". Norfolk, although he was 63, was the country's best soldier.
Norfolk was also the leading Roman Catholic and a strong opponent of Thomas Cromwell and it was hoped that he was a man who the rebels would trust. Norfolk was able to raise a large army but he had doubts about their reliability and suggested to the King that he should negotiate with the rebels. He tried to persuade them and the other Yorkshire nobles and gentlemen to regain the King's favour by handing over Robert Aske. However, they refused and Norfolk returned to London and suggested to Henry that the best strategy was to offer a pardon to all the northern rebels.
When the rebel army had dispersed the King could arrange for its leaders to be punished.
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Henry eventually took this advice and on 7th December, , he granted a pardon to everyone north of Doncaster who had taken part in the rebellion. Henry also invited Aske to London to discuss the grievances of the people of Yorkshire. When they first met Henry told Aske: "Be you welcome, my good Aske; it is my wish that here, before my council, you ask what you desire and I will grant it. Everyone knows that if it had not been for him the 7, poor priests I have in my company would not be ruined wanderers as they are now.
To show his support Henry gave Aske a jacket of crimson silk. On their arrival they were all arrested and sent to the Tower of London. For Ordinances see M. Bond, Guide to the Records of Parliament , pp. Firth and R. Rait, Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum ; S. Lambert editor , Printing for Parliament Imprint: London : Swift Printers Sales , , p. Huntington Library Hastings manuscripts edited by Kim Watson. Deiniol's Library, Hawarden, compiled by C. Holt and Richard Mortimer. Notes: Part 2: printed and bound in Chippenham, Wiltshire, by A.
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Rowe Ltd. Imprint: Kew: List and Index Society, Includes bibliographical references p. See also Gazetteer online. List of the records of the Commissions on Fees, E. Cabinet letters at Windsor : [CAB. List of proceedings of commissioners for charitable uses, appointed pursuant to the Statutes 39 Elizabeth, cap. List of proceedings in the court of Star Chamber, vol. Chancery master's exhibits. Court of Chancery and Exchequer preserved in the National Archives: Ancient correspondence, revised edition. Exchequer of Receipt, receipt and issues rolls. List of proceedings in the Court of Requests, vol.
Privy Council Office: list of unbound papers preserved in the National Archives. Court of Chancery: Survey of guilds and fraternities. Home Office: registered papers. Index of inquisitions col.
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Records of the Office of the Auditors of Land Revenue.
State papers domestic. Legislation index. Samples of Exchequer equity pleadings and suits, , , and by Jessica Cooke and Henry Horowitz. Imperial and Commonwealth conferences. The royal charter witness lists of Edward II from the charter rolls in the National Archives transcribed and edited, with an introduction, by J.
The royal charter witness lists of Henry III from the charter rolls in the National Archives edited, with an introduction, by Marc Morris see also vol. List of House of Commons sessional papers, ; edited by Sheila Lambert. For the historical collections at the Greffe, see J. Source list of manuscripts relating to the U. Rough register of acquisitions of the Department of Manuscripts, British Library, Washebourne and Anne his wife— St. This section of volume 20 of the papers covers grants made by letters patent in September , sub-section Licences to alienate [dated at Westminster on the day of the month given in brackets at the end; p.
The cover shown above is Volume 20 Part 1 but this extract comes from Part 2.