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Emeka E. Okonkwo Dept. Aaron Adibe Agbo, Ph. Verified email at unn. Articles Cited by Co-authors. International Journal of Population Research , Environment, Development and Sustainability 13 1 , , Applied Research in Quality of Life 5 4 , , Environmental Impact Assessment Review 55, , Climate Change and the Nigerian Environment.

Enugu: JamoePublishers, Nigeria , Unpublished Ph. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6 2 S1 , , The Context Nigeria is Africa's most populous country with million inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 3 per cent. The goal is a rural economy in which those we help can benefit from economic growth, in line with two strategic objectives: developing the sustainable, climate-resilient economic and financial inclusion of young people in profitable agribusiness; and strengthening institutions at state and community levels to work with private companies in key value chains.

Country Facts Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, with million inhabitants, growing by 3 per cent per year. Much of the population is young, with approximately million 59 per cent under the age of The country covers Agriculture generated 21 per cent of Nigeria's GDP in , and 70 per cent of rural dwellers are subsistence smallholders. Country documents. Nadine Gbossa Country Director n. Mariatu Kamara Country Programme Officer m.

Benjamin Odoemena Country Programme Officer b. Projects and Programmes. No matching projects were found.

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Related news. Development projects supported by the International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD in Nigeria have been effective in improving the livelihoods of rural poor people and strengthening their food production systems in a number of impoverished, remote communities, according to findings presented today in Abuja by the Independent Office of Evaluation of IFAD. Related publications. This survey of pastoral livelihoods of Fulani herders is set against a backdrop of agricultural change and general insecurity. The survey showed that the majority of pastoral households in the study area are better off or in the middle wealth categories and only a few are poor in terms of livestock holdings.

However, many households are poor in terms of land holdings. Pastoralists are less vulnerable to livestock disease but increasingly vulnerable to the risks of conflict and poor access to natural resources. Cattle productivity parameters are more stable, but the overall productivity has decreased and reproductive rates were particularly low. This information gives us an improved understanding of factors affecting pastoral livelihood strategies and lifestyle choices, which is useful for targeting improvements and interventions and providing a solution to the current volatile situation.

The target is clearly not poverty or livestock disease, although there is room for improvement on both.

The target should be to increase productivity and sustainability and reduce vulnerability. The primary approach to achieving this is to settle the issues surrounding security, natural resource use and sustainable nutrition for cattle. The current extensive production system has clearly become unsustainable, and the extent to which Fulani pastoralists can adapt their livelihood strategies to integrate with prevailing conditions will determine the viability of their livelihoods in the future.

AOM is an epidemiologist at the University of Edinburgh, working on the control of parasitic and zoonotic diseases. APMS is a livestock and health systems economist. We would also like to thank Dr K. Picozzi and Dr M. Thrusfield for their contributions to the wider project. Our sincere appreciation goes to the community leaders of the study villages on the Jos Plateau. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

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Download PDF. Pastoralism December , Cite as. Pastoral livelihoods of the Fulani on the Jos Plateau of Nigeria. Open Access. First Online: 29 November Background Small-scale livestock production is a major contributor to the economies of sub-Saharan countries, especially for the rural populations. It consists of younger granite of volcanic origin, and the terrain is characterised by numerous rocky, flat-topped hills and crater lakes. The Jos Plateau, formerly open savannah woodland but now mostly grassland, is a highly populated, intensively cultivated area.

It was historically free of tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis.

Migration And Livelihood In Southeast Nigeria 2005

The absence of trypanosomiasis and abundant pasture attracted large numbers of cattle-keeping pastoralists. However, beginning in , there have been increasing reports of tsetse flies and African animal trypanosomiasis AAT on the Plateau Majekodunmi et al. Open image in new window. Figure 1 Jos Plateau. A structured questionnaire, incorporating various participatory rural appraisal PRA techniques, was administered to livestock owners who participated in the trypanosomiasis survey.

This allowed us to gather data for quantitative analysis of animal productivity and profitability to pastoralists; determine which social, economic, ecological and cultural factors influence animal health and disease control by herders and investigate knowledge, attitude and practices of animal husbandry and disease control. Figure 2 Study area showing selected villages. Fifteen percent gained additional income from off-farm activities, mostly mining and sale of firewood.

Figure 3 Sources of pastoral cash revenue across the study area. Figure 4 Household income diversity. Land ownership was universal, with all households owning a piece of land. The average amount of land owned was This illustrates the general trend of land use primarily for cropping purposes. Figure 5 Land ownership. All households were engaged in crop farming. One hundred percent of households grew maize, All recipients grew more than one crop and the average number of crops grown was four. All but three of the 30 households used manure from their own cows Figure 6 Crops grown by households.

Herd size was very variable, ranging from 7 cattle to 5, cattle. The average herd size was cattle.

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Figure 7 Cattle holdings. When considered by age group, 8. The overlapping confidence intervals indicate that there is no significant difference in sex ratio. There is no overlap in confidence intervals, indicating that there is a significant difference in sex ratio in this age group.

There is no overlap in confidence interval between the three age groups, indicating a significant difference in age group composition. Figure 8 Herd composition. Information on herd size, births, deaths, sales, purchases and prices was collected from individual members of focus group discussions using PRA techniques embedded in a structured questionnaire. In the course of one year, 15 calves would be born adding 5. Sales would consist of eight adult cattle 3. Nine cattle would die 3. Natural herd growth births to deaths would be four cattle 1. In this description, cattle numbers were rounded to whole numbers, but percentages reflect the fractions.

Table 2 Mean productivity parameters per household herd with confidence intervals. Analysis of households by livestock holdings revealed that Analysis by land holdings showed that Figure 9 Wealth groups by cattle. Figure 10 Wealth groups by land. Twenty-two households did not practise transhumance.

Figure 11 Reasons for seasonal migration.

Figure 12 Seasonal calendar with migration periods. Rainy season migration is practised for: a Accessible grazing and water : Pasture and water are widely available in the wet season, but uptake of more commercial and intensive farming methods and a higher proportion of cash crops mean that arable farmers increasingly demand more land and water for irrigation, so herders are marginalised. Wealth grouping The results showed a discrepancy between wealth grouping by land and wealth grouping by livestock holdings.

Crops The pastoral Fulani group in the study area have become agro-pastoralists who own land and grow their own staples maize, millet as well as cash crops vegetables. Herd productivity Reproductive efficiency was low but not untypical for the region. However, there are some apparent changes that can be deduced from the figures: Mean herd size has increased and is more variable.

Migration And Livelihood In Southeast Nigeria

Our experience has been that natural resource conflicts unrelated to the ethno-religious conflicts previously described tend to be settled amicably on the Jos Plateau as reported by respondents. The pastoralists interviewed described practising increased migration during both wet and dry seasons to comply with these agreements. Figure 13 Gashish wet season land use scheme Google Earth, Google Scholar. Preventive Veterinary Medicine , 29— Awogbade MO: Fulani pastoralism: Jos case study.

ABU Press, Zaria; In Hope betrayed? A report on impunity and state-sponsored violence in Nigeria. Cambridge Anthropology , 9 2 — Blench, R. The transformation of conflict between pastoralists and cultivators in Nigeria. Accessed 20 June Mallam Dendo Ltd. Catley A: Notes on pastoral livelihoods in Africa.

From the Moluccas to Madagascar: The economic significance of cloves

Economic and financial review. Federal Government of Nigeria, Abuja; Chambers R: The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal.

World Development , 22 7 — Livelihoods connect. Accessed 1 May Famine early warning system: National livelihood profiles. Accessed 19 June Fricke W: Cattle husbandry in Nigeria: A study of its ecological conditions and social-geographical differentiation. Heidelberger Geographischen Arbeiten, Heft Ethnographic survey of Africa, Western Africa, 7. International African Institute, London; Hartmann B: Will the circle be unbroken?

A critique of the Project on Environment, Population, and Security. In Violent environments. Cornell University Press, Ithaca; — Herskovits, J. Nigeria: Critical time for Nigeria's future. Guest Column, 14 March Accessed 15 Sept