Guide Passive Micro-Optical Alignment Methods

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US6373644B1 - Micro optical bench component clip structures - Google Patents

In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. Whereas the embodiments described thus far are applicable to grating outcoupled surface emitters and conventional surface emitters VCSELs , the following embodiments described in FIGS. Edge emitter and photo detector are affixed on substrate Next, lens cap is affixed onto interposer A portion of the bottom surface of lens cap has applied thereon a reflective coating Light from the edge of the laser reflects off one reflective wall and is directed and shaped by lens into light guide Residual light from the other edge of laser reflects off surfaces and and is incident on the photo detector Next, laser and monitor photodiode are attached to substrate Cap is formed with a reflective coating applied on the inside surface.

Cap is affixed to substrate with a hermetic seal. Light from the edge of the laser reflects off of reflective wall and is directed and shaped by lens into light guide Residual light from edge of laser reflects off of reflective coating and is incident on photo detector Additionally substrate has a precision standoff that maintains the laser surface at a fixed height from substrate Heatsink attach material may be applied between laser and cap The process begins and conductive lines and pads are deposited into a substrate step [] Next, monitor photodiode is attached to the substrate at a pad location step and the photodiode is electrically coupled to another pad step Thereafter, the laser is attached to the substrate at a pad location step and the laser is electrically coupled to another pad step Then, a silicon lens cap is attached over the laser and the monitor photodiode with a hermetic seal step and the process ends.

Turning now to FIG. The process begins and conductive lines and pads are deposited into a microlens substrate step [] Thereafter, the laser is attached to the microlens substrate with solder bumps at two pad locations step Then, a silicon cap is attached over the laser and the monitor photodiode with a hermetic seal step and the process ends. The packaging format described above is advantageous in many ways. One significant advantage is that the planar format lends itself to automated assembly using commercial pick and place equipment available in the semiconductor industry.

In particular, the optical axis of the lens can be passively aligned to the optical axis of the laser beam using fiducial marks on the laser and lens cap, with commercial precision pick and place equipment. More particularly, sub-micron alignment precisions, required for improved coupling efficiency into singlemode light guides, can be achieved for example by using eutectic die attach and in-situ reflow on precision die attach equipment.

Self-alignment forces of solder reflow may also be used as an alignment mechanism for the flip-chip method. The above methods allow for complete automation and provide much faster assembly times than the tedious active align processes used in conventional packaging. Furthermore, multiple laser packages may be fabricated on a single substrate wafer further improving assembly throughputs by reducing handling and indexing times. Another key advantage is that the substrate wafer may be bussed on the saw streets to simultaneously energize all packages on the wafer. This enables efficient wafer-level testing and burn-in after which the packages are singulated by dicing the saw streets.

The package is hermetically sealed; therefore, it can be incorporated into a laser assembly by the customer without the extra effort of aligning the lens, aligning the photo detector, and hermetically sealing the assembly. The planar package also has a much smaller vertical profile and a smaller footprint than a conventional laser assembly.


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Another key advantage is that the use of a silicon substrate enables the integration of drive electronics on the substrate which then becomes an enabler for high speed modulation of the laser. Laser package is provided in the TOSA with current being provided by leads The TOSA also has fiber coupled and aligned to the laser.

3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration

The lead frame package incorporates laser package [] into an assembly that provides external leads Laser package is coupled to flexible tape Electrical connections are provided through conductive lines within tape Laser package may be attached directly to printed circuit board PCB Electrical connections may be made from the laser package to the circuit board, making the communications between circuitry on the PCB and the laser package more efficient. Thus, the present invention solves the disadvantages of the prior art by providing planar packaging for lasers.

The alignment and assembly of components in the package is accomplished in a passive manner and therefore may be virtually fully automated using machine vision. Therefore, the packages may be manufactured at a higher volume more reliably and at a lower cost. The use of a silicon substrate enables the integration of drive electronics close to the laser thereby enabling high modulation speeds. The compact planar package has equal or better coupling efficiency. Furthermore, the package is hermetic at the substrate wafer level, thus enabling wafer-level testing and burn-in.

Many laser packages may be fabricated on a substrate wafer and testing and burn-in may be performed on all packages on the substrate wafer at one time.


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Also, a key advantage of this is that subsequent assemblies or packages, such as precision molded TOSA or small outline integrated circuit SOIC may be non-hermetic. The planar package of the present invention provides a standard subassembly or subpackage, thus simplifying assembly, testing, burn-in, etc. Planar subpackage [] is mated with precision receptacle In the example shown in FIG. The precision receptacle is fabricated with a channel to accept a connection ferrule, which holds a light guide.

The precision receptacle also has a ferrule stop to hold the connection ferrule at a fixed distance from the microlens on subpackage The precision ferrule is also fabricated such that the connection ferrule, and thus the light guide, is accurately aligned over the microlens. Receptacle [] may also have formed thereon a precision protrusion that fits into photo-lithographically defined cavity in the substrate of the subpackage. The receptacle may be passively aligned with the planar subpackage by mating the precision protrusion on the receptacle with the cavity in the subpackage.

In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, the precision protrusion may be formed on the substrate of the planar subpackage and the cavity may be formed in the precision receptacle. The protrusion-to-cavity mating provides alignment of the optical axis of the laser light beam to the optical axis of the light guide, i. The mating technique also may serve to maintain the lens at a fixed distance from the ferrule stop, thus fixing the last translational degree of freedom.

Posts [] are attached to the combined TOSA assembly to form package leads. The posts may be trimmed and formed after assembly.

Passive Micro-Optical Alignment Methods

Conductive leads electrically couple the planar subpackage to the package leads. The conductive leads are then covered by glob top encapsulant Thus, the TOSA package may be assembled in a fully automated manner with passive alignment of the light guide. The laser beam is preferably coupled directly into a single mode fiber of the mating connector ferrule without the need of an intermediate fiber stub. The assembly of the present invention allows drop-in replacement for TO header based packages.

Mitch Ruda, Optical Alignment Techniques: Shack Cube, Off-Axis Parabola

The leads of the TOSA may be in the form of a planar leadframe. This would allow planar and matrix processing during assembly. Final configuration may be achieved by a trim and form operation on the leads. With reference to FIGS. The ferrule body may be passively aligned with the planar subpackage by mating the precision protrusion on the receptacle with the cavity in the subpackage.

Coupling may be achieved directly into a single mode fiber of the mating connector ferrule. Ferrule body [] is mated with planar subpackage Flex tape may be electrically coupled with conductive pads in the planar subpackage. The ferrule body may be attached to the subpackage using adhesive A heatsink may be bonded to the back of cap While the examples shown in FIGS.

Furthermore, other modifications to the subpackage may be made within the scope of the present invention. Thus, the present invention provides a precision protrusion in the receptacle that fits into a photo-lithographically defined cavity in the substrate of the planar subpackage, thereby passively effecting and maintaining alignment of the axis of the microlens with respect to the central axis of the mating ferrule. Thus, the subassembly of the present invention may be simply dropped into a customer-specific package in one final assembly step.

Since the planar subpackage is sealed and has a least one aligned lens element and since the planar subpackage may be passively aligned with a customer-specific package, the customer is saved the additional steps of performing tedious alignment, sealing, testing, and burn-in tasks. What is claimed is: 1. A method of passively aligning a laser assembly comprising: providing a planar subpackage, wherein the planar subpackage forms a sealed cavity enclosing a laser and wherein the planar subpackage has formed therein a lens element aligned over the laser;.

The method of claim 1 , further comprising: inserting a connection ferrule into the light guide receptacle, wherein the connection ferrule holds a light guide. The method of claim 2 , wherein the step of providing a ferrule body includes providing a ferrule stop in the light guide receptacle, wherein the ferrule stop holds the connection ferrule at a fixed distance from the lens element. The method of claim 2 , wherein the light guide is a single mode fiber. The method of claim 1 , further comprising: inserting a light guide into the light guide receptacle. The method of claim 5 , wherein the light guide is a single mode fiber.

The method of claim 1 , further comprising: attaching conductive leads to the laser assembly; and. The method of claim 1 , further comprising: attaching the subpackage to the ferrule body with an adhesive. The method of claim 1 , wherein the laser is a grating-outcoupled surface emitting laser. A laser assembly, comprising: a planar subpackage, wherein the planar subpackage forms a sealed cavity enclosing a laser and wherein the planar subpackage has formed therein a lens element aligned over the laser; and.

The laser assembly of claim 11 , further comprising: a connection ferrule that fits into the light guide receptacle, wherein the connection ferrule holds a light guide. The laser assembly of claim 12 , wherein a ferrule stop is formed in the light guide receptacle, wherein the ferrule stop holds the connection ferrule at a fixed distance from the lens element.

The laser assembly of claim 12 , wherein the light guide is a single mode fiber. The laser assembly of claim 11 , further comprising: a light guide that fits into the light guide receptacle. The laser assembly of claim 15 , wherein the light guide is a single mode fiber. The laser assembly of claim 11 , further comprising: conductive leads attached to the laser assembly, wherein the planar subpackage is electrically coupled to the conductive leads.

The laser assembly of claim 11 , wherein the subpackage is attached to the ferrule body with an adhesive. The laser assembly of claim 11 , wherein the laser is a grating-outcoupled surface emitting laser. Packaging and passive alignment of light source to single mode fiber using microlens and precision ferrule. USA1 en. AUA1 en.

Customer Reviews

WOA2 en. Planar and wafer level packaging of semiconductor lasers and photo detectors for transmitter optical sub-assemblies. USB2 en. USB1 en. Surface-emitting semiconductor laser device in which an edge-emitting laser is integrated with a diffractive lens, and a method for making the device. Surface-emitting semiconductor laser device in which an edge-emitting laser is integrated with a diffractive or refractive lens on the semiconductor laser device. Co-packaging photonic integrated circuits and application specific integrated circuits.

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