Inorganic, organic or hybrid nanoparticular materials are used in various applications fields as medicine, pharmaceuticals, analytics, catalysis, coating, and several others. Nanoparticles are efficient and versatile devices for drug delivery as they can improve crucial properties of a drug entity such as solubility, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution and in vivo stability .
Due to their tailoring properties they can overcome physiological barriers and can help to guide their payload to specific cells or intercellular compartments. By which side effects can be minimized and therapeutic benefits of a drug can be increased. By virtue of their small size and by functionalizing their surface with polymers and appropriate ligands, polymeric nanoparticles can also be targeted to specific cells and locations in the body. Depending on the polymer characteristics, polymeric nanocarriers can also be engineered in such a way that they can be activated by changes in the environmental pH, chemical stimuli, or temperature.
Macrophages are well recognized phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system RES and one of the main cells responsible for the uptake and clearance of administered drug loaded nanoparticles. However, the ability of various nanoparticles to escape the endolysomal compartment allows incorporated drugs to be delivered to the cytoplasm and finally to the nucleus. Thus, this property of the nanoparticles to be easily taken up by phagocytic cells makes them feasible to carry proteins, genes and other biological macromolecules as well .
Other applications include cytoplasmic release of plasmid vectors and therapeutic agents e.
Depending on the preparation methods used, two different types of nanoparticles can be obtained, namely nanospheres and nanocapsules [6,7]. Nanoparticles are drug loaded particles with diameter ranging from 1 to nm. Controlled drug delivery systems are those type of devices in which therapeutic agents may be released at controlled rates for long periods of time, ranging from days to months.
The control exercised over the nature of drug delivery may be in temporal nature rate controlled or of a spatial nature site controlled or both. Currently there are a limited number of formulations approaches available for the compounds that are soluble in water, that includes, solubilisation, cosolvency, complexation with beta-cyclodextrines and solid dispersions that can enhance the dissolution of the drugs. Another classical formulation approach for poorly soluble drugs is micronisation, that means the transfer of coarse drug powder into ultrafine powder.
But for the colonic drug delivery, micronisation often results in a low and variable bioavailability. Hence, the next step taken to improve the saturation solubility, dissolution velocity and bioavailability of drugs is by reducing the particle size from microns to nano size levels that can be termed as Nanonisation. Hence, it was thought that nanoparticle could be used as an ideal drug delivery. The major goals in designing nanoparticles as a delivery system are to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the sitespecific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate and dose regimen.
Though liposomes have been used as potential carriers with unique advantages including protecting drugs from degradation, targeting to site of action and reduction toxicity or side effects, their applications are limited due to inherent problems such as low encapsulation efficiency, rapid leakage of water-soluble drug in the presence of blood components and poor storage stability. On the other hand, polymeric nanoparticles offer some specific advantages over liposomes.
Nanoparticles have a relatively large surface which promotes its ability to bind, adsorb and carry other compounds such as drugs and proteins. Although the definition identifies nanoparticles as having dimensions below 0.
Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties at nanoscale of 1 to nanometer nm. Hence two basic approaches are employed for the synthesis of nanostructures in the nm range for drug delivery, irrespective of the field or discipline. The building of nanostructures is achieved by growing or assembling of atoms or molecules which are the building blocks.
The building blocks may be manipulated through controlled chemical reactions to self-assemble and make nanostructures such as nanotubes and quantum dots. Atoms or molecules may also be physically manipulated to form nanostructures using minute probes.
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Self-assembling of atoms or molecules can be achieved by templating and non-templating. Templating involves the interaction of bio macromolecules under the influence of a specific sequence, pattern, structure, external force or spatial constraint. Non-templating is the formation of nanostructures from atoms or molecules with external influence. Bulk materials are reduced by some processes to form nanostructures. Medicine: The biological and medical research communities have exploited the unique properties of nanomaterials for various applications e.
Terms such as biomedical nanotechnology, bio nanotechnology, and nanomedicine are used to describe this hybrid field. Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications.
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Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug-delivery vehicles. Diagnostics: Magnetic nanoparticles bound to a suitable antibody are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample.
Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots, into polymeric micro beads. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures. Drug Delivery: The overall drug consumption and sideeffects can be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed.
This highly selective approach reduces costs and human suffering. An example can be found in dendrimers and nanoporous materials.
They could hold small drug molecules transporting them to the desired location. Some potentially important applications include cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells. A targeted or personalized medicine reduces the drug consumption and treatment expenses resulting in an overall societal benefit by reducing the costs to the public health system. Delivery of Anticancer Drugs: Polyalkyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles have been studied for targeting drugs to specific sites in the body.
The small colloidal carriers are biodegradable and drug substances can be incorporated by a process of surface adsorption.
Formulation and evaluation of simvastatin polymeric nanoparticles load | DDDT
For this reason different approaches have been developed in order to overcome this barrier. Polymeric nanoparticles represent one of the most stimulating challenges for the scientific world, being investigated as drug delivery systems for effective systemic and local delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system. This chapter presents in introduction a classification of the central nervous diseases followed by a presentation of different strategies that have been developed in order to obtain the polymeric nanoparticles as well as their applications for treatment and prevention of some central nervous diseases.
Polymeric nanoparticles, brain, drug delivery, nervous system, Alzheimer, Parkinson, AIDS, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, brain tumors, blood brain barrier, aminoacridines, levodopa, antiretroviral drugs, rivastigmine, solid-lipid nanoparticles, butylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles, nanotechnology, coreshell nanoparticles, photodynamic therapy.
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Polymeric Nanomedicines DOI: This book deals with the description of the construction of technical systems Vlad, Stefania Racovita, Maria-Andreea Lungan, Lucian Eva and Raluca Munteanu Abstract The brain is the most complex and remarkable organ in the human body because it is responsible for memories, movement, feelings, intelligence, emotions and desires determining the uniqueness of each person. Published 10 May Volume Pages — Review by Single-blind. Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak. Editor who approved publication: Dr Qiongyu Guo.
Materials and methods: The SIM PoNPs were prepared by using the nanoprecipitation method to improve the drug solubility and skin permeation. Furthermore, drug content, solubility, particle size, surface charge, and transmission electron microscopy of the prepared PoNPs were evaluated. Then, the PoNPs were loaded on hydrogel, and physical characteristics, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation of the hydrogel were evaluated.
Finally, the prepared gel was applied on rat wounds, and a histopathological study was performed. Results: The results showed that the drug content in the PoNPs was The PoNPs were spherical in shape with a smooth surface and a uniform size distribution. The particle size was