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They can be suitable for use in agriculture as a liming agent to be applied on medium and heavy soils. Wood Fuels Handbook. AIEL: Italian. The use of wood waste for energy production. The paper presents some technical aspects and management issues of wood waste reuse end disposal. It refers to the Greek and European legislation which determines the framework for rational and environmental friendly practices for woos waste management.

It refers also to the wood waste classification systems and the currently applied methods of wood waste disposal and reuse. Emphasis is given to the wood waste -to-energy conversion system, particularly to the pretreatment requirements, the combustion techniques, and the environmental constrains. Finally, the decision making process for the investments in the wood waste firing thermal units is discussed.

General description

The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood -based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the ' wood waste ' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging.

They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation panel fabrication, energy, and others. They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared.

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The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource. The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood , that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste , and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out.

Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste : heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments.

According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more thousand GJ per year. Rehabilitating agricultural streams in Australia with wood : a review. Worldwide, the ecological condition of streams and rivers has been impaired by agricultural practices such as broadscale modification of catchments, high nutrient and sediment inputs, loss of riparian vegetation, and altered hydrology. Typical responses include channel incision, excessive sedimentation, declining water quality, and loss of in-stream habitat complexity and biodiversity.

We review these impacts, focusing on the potential benefits and limitations of wood reintroduction as a transitional rehabilitation technique in these agricultural landscapes using Australian examples. In streams, wood plays key roles in shaping velocity and sedimentation profiles, forming pools, and strengthening banks. In the simplified channels typical of many agricultural streams, wood provides habitat for fauna, substrate for biofilms, and refuge from predators and flow extremes, and enhances in-stream diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates. Most previous restoration studies involving wood reintroduction have been in forested landscapes, but some results might be extrapolated to agricultural streams.

In these studies, wood enhanced diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates, increased storage of organic material and sediment, and improved bed and bank stability. Failure to meet restoration objectives appeared most likely where channel incision was severe and in highly degraded environments. Methods for wood reintroduction have logistical advantages over many other restoration techniques, being relatively low cost and low maintenance.

Wood reintroduction is a viable transitional restoration technique for agricultural landscapes likely to rapidly improve stream condition if sources of colonists are viable and water quality is suitable. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative.

Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and Since agricultural wastes are available abundantly at no or low costs,it has the potential to provide a low cost adsorbent for cleaning our environment. Adsorption onto activated carbon appears to be Furniture wood wastes : Experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

Referring to the industrial wood waste category as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy , this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests at lab- and pilot-scale for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' 'composite' wood wastes.

The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes ; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes ranging on the whole from to kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from to kcal kg -1 for LHV. The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence as compared with 'raw' wood burning of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon.

Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning. Characterization and potential recycling of home building wood waste. Wood construction waste of a square foot single family home we found to be lbs of solid-sawn wood , and lbs of engineered wood products EWP.

Much of the solid-sawn lumber and EWPs could be recycled into several products. Through a An assessment of management practices of wood and wood -related wastes in the urban environment. Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the MSW stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste ; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations.

For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services public and private. Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood , unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste ; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps.

Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. Full Text Available The candeia Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions.

The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood , after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood -cement panels. Waste heat utilization in agriculture. Wood waste : A disposal problem or an opportunity? The utilization of wood wastes in North America is reviewed, with a focus on the wood products industry and markets. On the whole, wood mill residues in North America have always been utilized except for a period from the s to the s oil crisis.

In the latter period, low cost electric power and hydrocarbon fuels rendered uneconomical the use of wood wastes as fuel. As a response to the problem of disposing these wastes , a number of innovations occurred in that period, including the use of wood chips for manufacturing pulp and particleboard, and the use of sawdust and shavings for manufacturing hardboard and medium density fiberboard.

Uses for bark, except as fuel, have not been successfully developed. Since the s, wood waste in the USA is essentially all used for composite board products and fuel. This is also true in eastern Canada, which is close to the wood products markets and which has fairly high oil and gas costs. However, in western Canada, low energy costs and small internal markets have led to a serious wood waste disposal problem.

A survey of wood waste supply and demand shows large surpluses in mill residues in western Canada and some remote locations in northern Ontario and Quebec. The Pacific Rim countries are identified as a potential market for western Canadian composite board production. The use of other sources of wood waste forestry or logging residues, which are costly to collect, and municipal construction waste is briefly discussed. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of Agricultural waste management system AWMS was discussed and a typical Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood.

Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning.

Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood.

However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency. Waste-wood resource supply assessment. Final report. The report documents and analyzes the availability and supply of wood waste in New York State to determine the type and amount currently generated to estimate its potential future use as a fuel. Detailed, current information is included on the availability, quantity and price of wood waste.

Topics include wood waste markets; the harvesting and supply infrastructure; current and project prices; competing markets; environmental impacts of harvesting, processing and burning wood waste for fuel; and factors affecting long-term availability and supply. New York State's waste wood resource was evaluated to complete the Energy Authority's recent investigation of the potential role of wood in producing electric power. In approximately More than 8 million tons or 68 percent, were disposed of by municipal solid waste and construction and demolition debris facilities.

Just under 3. More than Of the amount, more than Combustion of Waste Wood. Second phase of the collaboration project on waste wood combustion. Combustion of waste wood has during the last decade increased dramatically and this has resulted in a number of Swedish plants using this fuel, e. Handeloe P11 Norrkoeping and ldbaecken P3 Nykoeping , and yet other plants that are under construction e. The experience from these plants are that waste wood combustion results in a number of operational problems.

To some extent these problems are different compared with the problems related to combustion of other biofuels but the situation is not directly comparable to waste incinerators. The problems are mainly related to slagging and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces and accelerated corrosion at relatively low temperature compared to the situation for ordinary biofuels. In some cases an increase in the emissions of specific substances can also result in difficulties to fulfil the EC-directive on waste combustion.

Within previous projects the main problems related to combustion of waste wood have been identified and to some extent the cause of these problems has been clarified. One result of this reported investigation is a deeper understanding of the actual causes of these problems. However, the most important result is a number of recommendations for different measures on how to achieve disturbance-free combustion of waste wood. Ashes from straw and wood -chip fired plants for agricultural usage. Pilot project. The content of nutrients and heavy metals in ashes from the combustion of straw and wood chips at district heating plants is studied, on the basis of results of analyses from Danish municipalities, to determine whether such ashes are suitable for use as fertilizers.

Results of the analysis of ashes from 9 wood -chip fired and 26 straw-fired plants are presented. This is found to be unsatisfactory.

It is suggested that a closer investigation should be undertaken in order to determine which amount of straw and wood -chip ashes can be accepted for use as fertilizers in consideration of the stipulated limits for cadmium content of wastes to be used for agricultural purposes. In addition the technological and economic potentials of dosing of these ashes for this use should be investigated. Fly ash and slag were also included in the analysis results studied and it was found that the cadmium content of slag did not prevent its use as fertilizer, but that the distribution of cadmium in slag, in fly ash and in slam from flue gas cleaning systems related to the combustion of wood chips should be further investigated.

Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes , interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste , obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel — biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. The aim of the study was to determine the agricultural usefulness of the ashes obtained following the combustion of wood of fourteen tree species pear tree, apple tree, aspen, ash, alder, birch, poplar, hornbeam, pine, common walnut, oak, hazel, bird cherry and spruce in home fireplaces.

In the ashes Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes. Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes ; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem Musa paradisiaca.

They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the ratio by weight was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients.

In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue. Regional analysis of potential energy production from agricultural wastes : technical and economic study.

The possibilities for utilization of agricultural wastes for energy production are analyzed in two Danish counties, Ringkoebing and Vestsjaelland, which have different agricultural production patterns. A technical analysis indicates that direct combustion is the most favorable conversion method for straw and wood while biological conversion at present is best suited for animal waste. An economic analysis based on costs of collection, storage, transport and conversion of wastes and costs of corresponding oil and oil conversion were made.

From a community point of view only straw and wood are found to be competitive to the expensive gas fuel oil when burned in automatically stoked furnaces. From a heating station point of view waste utilization is more attractive because of the sales tax on oil products. Here straw and wood are competitive fuels to both gas and heavy fuel oil in all the analyzed systems except from the small manually stoked furnaces.

Animal waste seems to be competitive only when replacing gas fuel oil in medium size kW well utilized aerobic fermenters. Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. Period of. Pollution-free combustion of waste wood in Swiss joineries. The exploitation of scrap wood for heat generation in the wood processing industry makes sense not only in the context of energy conservation but also on environmental grounds.

Existing energy requirements can be provided by renewable energy sources, relieving the burden on the public waste disposal facility.

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The wood -fired heating plant for a joinery in Pratteln, Switzerland consumes to tonnes of waste wood per year, enabling approximately 80 tonnes of heating oil to be saved. The heat produced is used in a local scheme to heat the joinery and adjacent housing. State-of-the-art of the European regulation on wood wastes and wood ashes valorization. This study has the objective of comparing the regulations of 10 European countries with that of France, in relation to the classification and recycling of wood waste , in particular lightly treated wood , as well as recycling of wood ash.

The first part relating to wood waste presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary, on the one hand, of the various sectors for recycling waste wood and, on the other, the emission limits for their energy recovery. Generally, there is a distinction between waste covered by the incineration directive, and the others, without any particular category for lightly treated wood. However, recommendations emerge from this that are based essentially on the regulations or guidelines observed in Germany, Austria and the United Kingdom.

The second part relating to wood ash also a presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary of the various sectors of recycling and limit values for spreading. Ash is generally considered as waste , and is recycled on a case-by case basis. Only Germany and Austria have clearly integrated wood ash in their regulatory framework. Overall this study shows the need for uniform regulation at European level, establishing environment requirements for recycling wood waste and wood ash, in order to encourage development of the use of biomass. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale.

The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi It has previously been shown that it is possible to remove Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated wood using electrodialytic remediation in laboratory scale Ribeiro et al. The pilot scale plant used Six remediation experiments were carried out. In these experiments, the process was up-scaled stepwise by increasing the distance between the electrodes from initially 60 cm to fi-nally cm.

The remediation time was varied between 11 and 21 days Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars. Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence or near-absence of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties.

Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any , which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications.

Parameters characterized include: physical properties particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area , hydraulic properties hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity , and chemical and electrochemical properties organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen CHN elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals. A wide range of fixed carbon A high variability in surface area 0.

Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral. The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently.

Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood , the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium.

Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes. Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae.

Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production. Swedish recovered wood waste : linking regulation and contamination. In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture.

A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste RWW contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood , which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination.

First the management of RWW during was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier actor. From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation.

In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors.

Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized. Consideration of the energetic use of waste wood versus re-use of materials. Recycling of wood wastes to chipboard is compared with the combustion of waste wood in combination with high-efficient energy recovery. Both options show much better environmental effects than the disposal of wood wastes. The differences between the environmental effects of the first two options can be neglected.

The reprocessing of wood wastes to chipboard results in a decrease of the production of gypsum board. That benefit is equal to the benefit of cocombustion of wood wastes in a coal-fired power plant, i. Inventory of contaminants in waste wood ; Inventering av foeroreningar i returtrae. Waste wood is increasingly used as fuel in Sweden.

It is of Swedish origin as well as imported, mainly from Germany and the Netherlands. The waste wood is contaminated by e. The contaminants may cause technical problems such as deposits and corrosion as well as plugging of air openings. The present study has focussed on potential contaminants in waste wood that could cause problems of technical as well as environmental nature. The major chemical contaminants are surface treatments paints etc and wood preservatives.

The surface treatments contribute in particular to contaminants of zinc and lead. In some cases zinc has been found to cause severe deposits in the furnaces. Surface treatments also contribute to increased levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphur and nitrogen. Preservative-treated wood is the most important source of increased levels of copper, chromium and arsenic in the waste wood. Waste wood imported from Germany contains less arsenic but the same amount of copper and chromium as Swedish waste wood.

The contents of mercury in German waste wood can be expected to be higher than in waste wood of Swedish origin. The fraction consisting of wood -based panels is comparably free from contaminants but as a result of the high contents of adhesives wood -based panels contribute to a higher proportion of nitrogen in waste wood than in forest residues. A great number of non- wood compounds such as plastics and metals do also contaminate waste wood.


By careful and selective demolition and various sorting procedures most non- wood compounds will be separated from the waste wood. This may seem to be a small proportion, but if large amounts of waste wood are incinerated the non- wood compounds will inevitably cause. Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at expanding the applications of the copolymers on the basis of the waste styrene production.

One of the areas is used as impregnating compositions of wood materials, selection of optimal conditions modification on samples of the most widely used in the industry of wood , such as birch, aspen and other. Studies were conducted to obtain and use an impregnating compositions based on copolymers synthesized from waste products of styrene and the cubic remainder rectification of ethylbenzene CRRE for the protective treatment of birch wood.

Studied the process of modification birch using the method of experiment planning greco-latin square of the fourth order, and the influence of such factors as the temperature of the impregnating composition, the duration of the impregnation, the temperature and duration of thermal treatment on the performance moisture resistance of wood. May 1, Wet oxidation as a Waste wood as bioenergy feedstock. Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK.

Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation.

Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood 's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced.

To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development. China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them.

The paper studies three main agricultural wastes : straw, organic waste and plastic waste , and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development. Making a meal out of wood wastes. Researchers at Waterloo University, Canada, have developed a fungal based process for making animal feedstuffs from cellulose wastes. It could solve the severe pollution problems of the pulp and paper mills and save on imported soya meal at the same time. Utilization of agricultural cellulose wastes. Thus, dry wheat straw 0. The sugar solution obtained L contained 1.

The cellulose residue had a dry weight of 0. The degree of polymerization was glucose units. CFD modeling and experience of waste -to-energy plant burning waste wood. Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste -to-Energy WtE plants. In this paper, CFD modeling The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood -fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood -based industry has to overcome.

The peak availability, collection logistics collection centers and transportation and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries UK, Italy and Finland is briefly presented.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests.

Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations.

We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

Drying wood waste with a pulse combustion dryer. Buchkowski, A. Kitchen, Ltd. There is a vast amount of wood waste available to be used as an alternate fuel if its moisture could be reduced efficiently. Tests have been conducted to assess an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste ; specifically sawdust and pulverized wet hog fuel. The material is injected into the exhaust gases in the tailpipe of the combustor which uses natural gas or propane as a fuel.

The turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The materials is further dried in a rotary drum. Analysis of the test data and cost estimates of the equipment indicate that the pulse combustion drying system is at least comparable to existing systems in terms of operating costs, and offers very significant savings in capital costs.

Sustainable Absorption Panels from Agricultural Wastes. Full Text Available Noise has become a serious environmental problem and there are demands for alternative sustainable materials which capable to reduce the noise level at various frequency ranges. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the potential of turning the agricultural waste and waste paper into a sound absorption panel. For the purpose of this study, combination of two materials was under studied; coconut coir fibre from agriculture waste and shredded waste paper from the office.

There were two main objective of the research; first is to develop absorption panels from coconut coir powder that available locally with a combination of shredded paper at different percentage of mixture. Second objective is to identify the absorption rate of the panels. The study encompasses the fabrication of the particle board using the coconut husk powder mix with shredded waste paper and using the gypsum powder as the binder for the two materials. Four acoustic panels of size 0. The absorption coefficient of the panels was tested in a reverberation chamber and in accordance with ISO standards.

Based on the results, sample 1 gave the highest absorption coefficient compared to sample 2, 3 and 4. This might be caused by the size of the coir powder which is very small, creating less void space in between the panel and thus causing it to absorb less sound. Since sound absorption is very much affected by the availability of void space of.

The article deals with biomass gasification technology using the gasification plant running on wood chips and pellets, produced from essential oils waste waste of coniferous boughs. The paper provides the improved biomass gasification process scheme including the grinding of coniferous boughs, essential oil distillation and thermal treatment of coniferous boughs waste and pelletizing. Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization.

Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the chemical waste provoked by the wood on the sheets of steel used in the making of the mountains and cut tools.

It was certain the correlationbetween the chemical waste and the extractive soluble in cold water, hot water and in the sequencetoluene and ethanol content. Two types of steel and twenty-seven species different from wood wereused. The corrosive agent, constituted of 50 g of fresh sawdust moist mixed to 50 ml of distilledwater, it was prepared and placed inside of the plastic box, hermetically closed, on the samples ofsteel, which were totally immersed. Thisgroup was operated to 80 rotations per minute rpm. The time of reaction was of four hours.

Afterthat time the corrosive agent was discarded and the samples were washed, dried and weighed. At theend, each sample was processed by a total period of forty hours. The chemical waste was evaluated by the weight difference suffered from beginning at the end of the experiment. For theresults it was observed that the Eucalyptus tradryphloia and the Eucalyptus phaeotricha the speciesthat provoked were, respectively, the largest and smaller chemical waste for the two types of steelappraised.

Great variation exists in the chemical waste due to the effect of the species. The corrosionand chemical waste are especially related with the quality of the material solved in ethanol. The steel were more attached than the steel. Chemi-thermomechanical pulping of para rubber waste wood. Design and testing of wood containers for radioactive waste. A wood container for shipping and storing radioactive waste was designed to eliminate the problems caused by the weight, cost, and shape of the steel containers previously used.

Tests specified by federal regulations compression, free-drop, penetration, and vibration were conducted on two of the containers, one loaded to lb and one loaded to lb. The lb container failed the free-drop test, but the lb container easily passed the tests and therefore qualifies as a Type A container. Its simplicity of design, low weight, and ease in handling have proved to be time-saving and cost-effective.

This report summarizes the barriers and opportunities in wood recovery, reuse, and recycling as identified by this group of stakeholders from the wood industry, waste industry, and relevant government agencies. Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes.

Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.

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Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3. Leaching of CCA-treated wood : implications for waste disposal. Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate CCA -treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure TCLP , synthetic precipitation leaching procedure SPLP , extraction procedure toxicity method EPTOX , waste extraction test WET , multiple extraction procedure MEP , and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition C and D debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate.

Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste , it frequently would require management as such. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes.

All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality. Roughness study on homogeneous layer panels manufactured from treated wood waste.

Full Text Available Natural resource exploration is growing, highlighting woods and joinery waste , wood industries and the like. This study presents homogeneous particleboard PPH roughness characterization manufactured from treated wood waste. The results show that the manufactured PPH showed roughness class N 10, with roughness values Ra of less than This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood -based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive.

Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. All rights reserved.

Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Waste wood is wood separated from the solid- waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion.

The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource.

Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste. Recycled agricultural wastes : biochars multifunctional role in agriculture and environment. The rapid population growth, urbanization and modernization worldwide have resulted in the significant increase of waste generated.

Waste production is a major environmental problem in our society. In fact, recycling and using raw materials from the waste we generate are some of the environmental ch Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost. The TOC concentration of sugar cane was up to The released TOC quality of the rest materials were 2.

The long-term leaching experiment of selected Optimized agricultural waste showed that the TOC content in leaching solution rise rapidly to peak value and was stable afterwards, with the concentration of 4. The TOC releasing amount order was same with the short-term leaching experiment. Most of the ammonia nitrogen concentration in leachate was lower than 0. The kjeldahl nitrogen in the corn straw, soybean straw, rice straw, reed, rice husk, and sugar cane leachate 0.

Above all, it can be concluded that the sugar cane, corn straw, rice husk, wheat straw, corn cob, wood were ideal carbon source material in ten kinds of agricultural. Utilization of agricultural waste in power production. Clausen, J. Straw firing is difficult due to its significant contents of alkaline components. Consequently, its utilization presupposes the development of new technologies. The biomass development program is concentrated on two ways which are 1 co-firing of existing coal fired power station with a modest amount of straw and 2 development of CFB technology that allows a high share of biomass as well as coal only.

Full Text Available The surface modification of wood powder by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was investigated. Helium was used as the carrier gas and hexamethyl-disiloxane HMDSO as the monomer to modify the surface property of the waste wood biocomposites by plasma polymerization. The tensile strengths of untreated waste wood powder W3 and single species wood powder S3 were about Tensile strengths of W3 and S3 were improved by From the analyses of mechanical properties and morphology, we conclude that the interfacial bonding of polypropylene and wood powder can be improved by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment.

Generation of electricity and combustible gas by utilization of agricultural waste in Nara canal area water board. Biomass in an important source of energy, however, it is not fully utilized in Sindh. The various types of biomass normally used for the generation of energy are extensively available in the province. These are forest debris and thinning; residue from wood products industry; agricultural waste ; fast-growing trees and crops; wood and wood waste ; animal manures and non-hazardous organic portion of municipal solid waste.

Since agriculture is pre-dominant in Sindh, it has a large amount of agricultural waste available in most of the areas.

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Agriculture wastes like rice husk, wheat straw, cotton stalks, and sugarcane bagasse can be utilized to produce gas and afterwards electricity. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council PARC has found that at most of the locations of Sindh, agricultural waste is available more than the energy requirements of that particular area. Biomass can also generate electricity or heat in one of the several processes, can be used in a piston driven engine, high efficiency gas turbine generator or a fuel cell to produce electricity.

Biomass gasifies have gained attention for their efficiency, economy and environment-friendly. The Nara Canal Area Water Board is facing acute problem of electricity in the O and M of its drainage network and running of tube wells. The frequent breakdown and irregular supply of power is badly affecting in the management of drainage system and control of rising water-table, however, it is anticipated that the generation of electricity through biomass can address this acute problem and greatly help in controlling water logging and salinity in Sindh.

Wood processing activities were physically observed for. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant. Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate CCA poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. The heterogeneity of wooded-agricultural landscape mosaics influences woodland bird community assemblages.

Understanding how species respond to landscape factors could contribute to preventing further decline of woodland bird populations. Kristensen, I. Nova de Lisboa, Caparica Portugal. CCA-treated waste wood poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. This paper presents the results obtained by electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood. Thereby the concentration of copper in the wood is reduced from app. After remediation the removed metals are collected into liquids. The use of ion exchange membranes to separate the wood from the electrolytes result in a distribution of the metals after remediation that makes the collection of the metals easier, and reuse of the metals, for e.

Energy from agricultural animal wastes. This technology status report discusses the production of animal wastes in the UK, and the environmental problems caused by direct use of the waste as fertilisers or disposal by landfilling. Paulova, T. Pokorny, M. Rychtera, and K. Lopez, A. Claassen, H. Mooibroek, and W.

Maarten, U. Wouter, and V. Madihah, M. Ariff, K. Sahaid, A. Sahaid, and M. Maiti, S. Sarma, S. Brar, Y. Bihan, P.

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Drougui, G. Buelna, and M. Malaviya, A. Jang, and S. Marcu, I. Tichit, F. Fajula, and N. Ndou, A. Plint, and N. Nigam, P. Niven, R. K Ogo, S. Onda, and K. Pang, J. Zheng, L. He, L. Li, X. Pan, A. Wang, X. Wang, and T. Qureshi, N. Saha, B. Dien, R. Hector, and M. Ranjan, A. Khanna, and V. Riittonen, T. Toukoniitty, D. Madnani, A. Leino, K. Kordas, M. Szabo, A. Sapi, K. Arve, J. Santacesaria, E. Carotenuto, R. Tesser, and M. Di Serio. Steen, E. Chan, N. Prasad, S. Myers, C.

Petzold, A. Redding, M. Ouellet, and J. Sukumaran, R. Gottumukkala, K. Rajasree, D. Alex, and A. Taconi, K. Venkataramanan, and D. Tan, L. Yanga, Y. Yoshiharu, Y. Kou, Y. Tan, T. Vitidsant, and N. Thang, V. Kanda, and G. Ueda, W. Ohshida, T. Kuwabara, and Y. Uyttebroek, M.

Vam Hecke, and K. Van Der Wal, H. Sperber, M. Houweling, R. Bakker, W. Brandenburg, and A. Wackett, L. P Wang, Y. Wanqian, C. Chieh-Lun, H. Shih-Hsin, C. Jo-Shu, and R. Xue, C. Fangfang, X. Mengmeng, T. I-Ching, Z. Jingbo, B. Fengwu, and Y. Mengmeng, Z. Jingbo, C. Lijie, R. Jiangang, B. Jingbo, L. Congcong, Y. Shang-Tian, B. Fengwu, and T. Min, G. Xinwen, P. Elton, C. Lijie, B. Fengwu, L. Fangfang, and Y. Zixuan, W. Shudong, Z.

Xiaotong, C. Lijie, M. Ying, and B. Export Citation. User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close Advanced Search Help. Show Summary Details.